Transforming the Global Economy or Parachuting Cats into Borneo?

Credit: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)By Lawrence SurendraBANGKOK, Thailand, Aug 24 2020 (IPS) The COVID 19 Pandemic continues relentlessly. Deaths approaching a million globally, 22 million infected and growing. Brazil, India, the US and Russia accounting for almost 50% of the total cases in the world. Medically the promise of a vaccine is given as signs of hope; what surprises awaits us when such a vaccine is available, would be another story. Economically, to address the uncertainty and the grim future ahead, the UN, some governments and even Joe Biden the US Presidential hopeful, are waving “Build Back better” as ways to achieve ‘a new normal’ out of the current pandemic. “Build Back Better” emerged out of the 3rd International Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai, in March 2015 and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction which had outlined seven clear targets and four priorities for action to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks. (1) Understanding disaster risk; (2) Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk; (3) Investing in disaster reduction for resilience and; (4) Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Other concepts such as Circular Economy (CE) are gaining more adherents. Professor Martin Charter in a recent edited book, “Designing for the ...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Featured Global Headlines Health Humanitarian Emergencies IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Population Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news

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Severe influenza illness or death is a serious concern among the elderly population despite vaccination. To investigate how the adaptive immune response after vaccination varies with the patient’s age, Jung et al., in a recent issue of the JCI, extensively analyzed the serum antibody response in different age groups after immunization with the egg-based influenza vaccine Fluzone. As expected, the immune response in young adults was dominated by antibodies targeting the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein. On the contrary, the serological repertoire of elderly donors was characterized by cross-reactive (CR) antibodie...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study sheds new light on the functional capability of ECM LAMB1 in modulating pain plasticity and identifies a mechanism that conveys extracellular alterations to intracellular plasticity. Moreover, we identified cingulate LAMB1/integrin β1 signaling as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain and associated anxiodepression.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Interindividual immune variability is driven predominantly by environmental factors, including exposure to chronic infectious agents such as cytomegalovirus (CMV). We investigated the effects of rhesus CMV (RhCMV) on composition and function of the immune system in young macaques. Within months of infection, RhCMV was associated with impressive changes in antigen presenting cells, T cells, and NK cells—and marked expansion of innate-memory CD8+ T cells. These cells express high levels of NKG2A/C and the IL-2 and IL-15 receptor beta chain, CD122. IL-15 was sufficient to drive differentiation of the cells in vitro and ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
We examined the sequence of TI-reactive antibodies, determined crystal structures for TI antibody–antigen complexes, and analyzed the contact residues of the antibodies on HA to discover common genetic and structural features of TI antibodies. Our data reveal that many TI antibodies are encoded by a light chain variable gene segment incorporating a shared somatic mutation. In addition, these antibodies have a shared acidic residue in the heavy chain despite originating from diverse heavy chain variable gene segments. These studies show that the TI region of influenza A HA is a major antigenic site with conserved stru...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Disordered lysosomal/autophagy pathways initiate and drive pancreatitis, but the underlying mechanisms and links to disease pathology are poorly understood. Here, we show that the mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) pathway of hydrolase delivery to lysosomes critically regulates pancreatic acinar cell cholesterol metabolism. Ablation of the Gnptab gene encoding a key enzyme in the M6P pathway disrupted acinar cell cholesterol turnover, causing accumulation of nonesterified cholesterol in lysosomes/autolysosomes, its depletion in the plasma membrane, and upregulation of cholesterol synthesis and uptake. We found similar dysregulation...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: The FRP by age group revealed the additional utility of the measure beyond the temporal and cross-sectional network connectivity measures. Other nonnetwork factors are still necessary to infer total epidemic potential for any specific pathogen.
Source: Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we consider an alternative design where we recruit among all individuals, symptomatic and asymptomatic, being tested for the virus in addition to population controls. We define a regression parameter related to a prospective risk factor analysis and investigate its identifiability under the two study designs. We review the difference between the prospective risk factor parameter and the parameter targeted in the typical TND where only symptomatic and tested people are recruited. Using missing data directed acyclic graphs, we provide conditions and required data collection under which identifiability of the p...
Source: Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion: Pathogen genomics enhance identifiability of VEI, but imperfect transmission network reconstruction biases estimate toward the null and limits our ability to detect VEI. Given the consistent direction of the bias, estimates obtained from trials using these methods will provide lower bounds on the true VEI. A combination of sequence and epidemiologic data results in the most accurate estimates, underscoring the importance of contact tracing.
Source: Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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