Answer to Case 603

Answer to Case of the Week 603:Borreliasp. spirochetes. The history is most consistent with a relapsing feverBorreliasp., and subsequent PCR showed this to beBorrelia hermsii. As Florida Fan mentioned, this case is a great reminder that when we examine a Giemsa-stained blood film, we may find things other than parasites. In addition to spirochetal bacteria such as in this case, we can find intracellular clusters (morulae) ofAnaplasma phagocytophilumandEhrlichicaspp. bacteria, and intracellular years (e.g.Histoplasma capsulatum, Talaromyces marneffei).Leishmaniaspp. amastigotes can also rarely be seen within phagocytic cells. I've shownBorreliaspirochetes on this blog before (seeCase of the Week 502), but never on a thick film, so I thought this would be a nice case to include here.Note that the spirochetes are uniformly slender with broad undulations. This is different than the microgametes of an exflaggelatedPlasmodiumsp. microgametocyte which I previously showed onParasite Case of the Week 595. In that case, I created a composite image of'squiggly things'seen on a blood smear which may be helpful in identifying and differentiating them:Some readers asked if theBorreliaspecies that cause Lyme disease could also be seen on blood film. The answer to this isNO - with one small caveat. The main cause of Lyme in the United States and Canada isBorrelia burgdorferi,whereas in Europe, you can also seeB. gariniiandB. afzelii.These organisms have extremely low levels of spir...
Source: Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites - Category: Parasitology Tags: borrelia Source Type: blogs

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Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. Human disease caused by B. miyamotoi was first described in Russia and later in the USA and Japan. Addi...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
Ixodes ricinus constitutes the main European vector tick for the Lyme borreliosis pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the relapsing fever borrelia Borrelia miyamotoi, as well as Anaplasma phagocytophilum ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
The black-legged (or deer) tick, Ixodes scapularis, commonly infests dogs in the USA and is the vector of important zoonotic pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Rapid o...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This review has concentrated on I scapularis-transmitted diseases affecting the Upper Midwest and has explored the ecology of the I scapularis vector and its role in pathogen transmission. PMID: 32348066 [PubMed - in process]
Source: WMJ - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: WMJ Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Vesta Matulaityte, Algimantas Paulauskas, Maksim Bratchikov, Jana RadzijevskajaAbstractIxodes lividus Koch, 1844 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks are parasites specific to the sand martin (Riparia riparia). The distribution range of I. lividus covers Europe and Asia and they are found wherever sand martins nest. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Rickettsia vini have recently been detected in I. lividus ticks in Central Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiale...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract Borrelia species are vector-borne parasitic bacteria with unusual, highly fragmented genomes that include a linear chromosome and linear as well as circular plasmids that differ numerically between and within various species. Strain CA690T, which was cultivated from a questing Ixodes spinipalpis nymph in the San Francisco Bay area, CA, was determined to be genetically distinct from all other described species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The genome, including plasmids, was assembled using a hybrid assembly of short Illumina reads and long reads obtained via Oxford Nanopore Tec...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research
Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are tick-borne infections transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in the eastern USA; both agents cause disease in dogs and people. To characterize changes in seropreva...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
der F Abstract Introduction: Despite advancements in diagnostic capabilities and the availability of effective antimicrobial agents, community-acquired infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are still associated with high mortality rates. Aim: To assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of community-acquired CNS infections treated in the West Pannonian region between 2010 and 2016. Method: Clinical data of 176 patients were retrospectively analysed in two age cohorts: 15 to 65 and more than 65 years of age. Results: Neuroinfections were found to be bacterial in 81, viral in 91, parasitic in ...
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Orv Hetil Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Ilaria Pascucci, Marco Di Domenico, Giulia Capobianco Dondona, Annapia Di Gennaro, Andrea Polci, Andrea Capobianco Dondona, Elisa Mancuso, Cesare Cammà, Giovanni Savini, Jacopo G. Cecere, Fernando Spina, Federica MonacoAbstractThe continuous flow of billions of birds between Africa and Europe creates an “ecological bridge” between physically remote areas. Migratory birds fly south from their breeding grounds during late summer/fall and fly back in spring. These movements regulate the spread of internal and ex...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
This study demonstrates the effect of only simultaneous infection by B. burgdorferi and B. microti on each pathogen, immune response and on disease manifestations with respect to infection by the spirochete and the parasite. In our future studies, we will examine the overall effects of sequential infection by these pathogens on host immune responses and disease outcomes.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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