Robotic surgery may improve outcomes in mouth and throat cancer
(Cedars-Sinai Medical Center) Robotic surgery for patients with early stage, oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer is associated with improved health outcomes, including better long-term survival, according to a Cedars-Sinai study published Thursday in JAMA Oncology. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs in the back of the throat and includes the base of the tongue and tonsils.
Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, diffe...
Conclusions In the span of a very short time—less than a decade—robotic head and neck surgery has transformed the management of the head and neck cancer, and it seems clear that the future of treatment for these cancers lies in a multimodal approach in which TORS is likely to play an important role. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that the current indications for TORS are limited and long-term data on the safety and oncological outcomes are needed to better understand the true role of TORS in treatment of head and neck cancer. Nonetheless, the emergence of ever more advanced robotic instruments i...
Human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular the HPV16 subtype, represents a major independent risk factor for oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPSCC), a group of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) affecting the tonsils and base of tongue [1 –3]. This is a rapidly evolving cancer in the Western world, with rising trends particularly in the young [4,5]. The most commonly used biomarker for HPV (+) HNSCC in the clinical setting at present is p16INK4A (p16), encoded by the CDKN2A gene (cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor 2A).
Oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OCPC) include cancers of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx. Together, this group of cancers accounts for over 500,000 new cancer cases per year worldwide . In 2007, the WHO concluded that human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is a cause of some subtypes of OCPC . Many epidemiological and molecular studies have meanwhile provided evidence for this causal link, particularly for squamous cell cancers of the oropharynx, the tonsils and parts of the tongue . Consequently, a paradigm shift in the understanding of OCPC has occurred.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) , with a strong association with cancers of the oropharynx (OPC), including cancers of the tonsils and base of tongue . It is now estimated that HPV type 16 is associated with 65 –80% of OPC [3,4] and incidence rates of HPV-related OPC are rapidly rising .
Over the last few decades, it has become clear that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) does not only cause ano-genital cancers, but also represents the etiological agent of a subset of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCC) . The majority of the HPV-driven HNSCC are oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) which arise at the tonsils or base of the tongue. Recently, a significant increase in the incidence of HPV-related OPSCC was observed in the US  and several European countries [3,4].
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are the cause of most anogenital cancers and a rising proportion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma located in the oropharynx (chiefly the tonsils and base of tongue/lingual tonsil) [1,2]. HPV-related cancers account for 60 to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) in North America and Northern Europe and could become, in the near future, the predominant type of head and neck malignancies in several western countries [3,4]. Oral and genital HR-HPV infections are both transmitted by mucosal contact and potentially through mucosal secretions most commonly attributed to sexual behaviors [5,6].
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common ancient virus of unknown origin. Most types of HPV infect the skin and cause benign warts, but 15 types are high risk and 12 are low risk for genital or oral cancer.1 Involvement of HPV 16 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is now well established, especially in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.1
CONCLUSIONSThe detection of HPV DNA in MGG‐stained FNA smears by PCR is a valid method that could be implemented in routine clinical practice. Cancer Cytopathol 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
In the United States, approximately 40–80% of oropharynx squamous cell cancers (OPSCC) are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) . While the overall incidence of head and neck SCC in the United States is declining, the rate of HPV-associated OPSCC appears to be rising . In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that OPSCC were one of only five cancers increasing in incidence from 1975 to 2009 . Clinically, HPV-positive cancers typically arise in the lingual and palatine tonsils, are poorly differentiated, have lower tumor (T) stage with more advanced nodal (N) stage and affect younger, white males .