Towards Better Vaccines and a Lower Burden of Infectious Disease in Old People

Over a lifetime, the burden of infectious disease - and particularly persistent infections such as cytomegalovirus - influences the pace of aging via its detrimental impact on immune function in later life. The slow upward trend in life expectancy over the past two centuries is due in no small part to reductions in infectious disease that accompanied improvements in sanitation and then medicine. In addition, in old age, once the immune system declines into ineffectieness, infectious disease becomes a much more serious concern. Infections that a young person defeats with ease become life-threatening. The primary strategy to address this issue presently adopted by the research community is to expand and improve on vaccines for older people, as the authors of today's open access paper outline. The issue with this approach is that the aged immune system is ineffective, and thus while there are some techniques that can improve vaccine performance, that performance is always going to be poor. If we want older people to exhibit a much lower burden of infectious disease, and to respond well to vaccines, the only viable way forward is to rejuvenate the immune system. Forms of therapy that might achieve this goal include regrowth of the thymus, the organ responsible for the maturation of T cells of the adaptive immune system, and which atrophies near entirely by age 50 or so. Additionally, damaged and dysfunctional hematopoietic stem cell populations of the bone marrow must be r...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

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Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Yanhua Liu, Yang Li, Shanshan Dong, Lu Han, Ruixin Guo, Yourong Fu, Shenghu Zhang, Jianqiu Chen
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Musio F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anemia has and will continue to be a central theme in medicine particularly as clinicians are treating a burgeoning population of complex multi-organ system processes. As a result of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses, and societal recommendations overly restrictive paradigms and under-administration of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have likely been followed by clinicians among all specialties. AREAS COVERED: A review of anemia in the context of chronic kidney disease, hematologic malignancies and cancer is presented with focus on the e...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2021Source: Urology Case Reports, Volume 34Author(s): Nina Al-Saadi, Safa Al-Musawi, Yousuf Khan, Daben Dawam
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Authors: Matti B, Zargar-Shoshtari K Abstract Prostate cancer represents a significant health burden worldwide. The cancer incidence had substantially increased since the introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in cancer screening. This had led to considerable debates among health professionals and epidemiologists, since PSA as a screening tool seemed to be far from perfect. In New Zealand, the controversy was quite prominent in the last three decades, with some advocating the benefits of screening, while others concerned regarding the risk of harms. With the absence of an organised screening programme and ...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study found that childhood cancer survivors in New Zealand had a high prevalence of developmental dental abnormalities and it identified potential risk factors related to their cancer treatment. Inequitable access to oral rehabilitation for this patient group argues for a mechanism for consistent improved access to publicly funded dental care across district health boards in New Zealand. PMID: 33032302 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Zarrabi A, Mark S PMID: 33032299 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Peng C, Cohen DJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cancer remains an important cause of mortality worldwide with two new immunotherapy drugs recently approved for metastatic disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the epidemiology and genomics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. They also examine prior trials involving targeted agents under investigation as well immunotherapies that have been approved and novel combinations. EXPERT OPINION: Great advances have been made in characterizing the molecular changes in esophageal carcinoma. However, relatively few drugs have shown benefit i...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
This article summarizes the rationale for, and development of CDK inhibitors in melanoma, with their evolution from pan-CDK inhibitors to highly specific agents, throughout clinical trials and finally their potential future use. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst CDK inhibitors have been practice changing in breast cancer management, their efficacy is yet to be proven in melanoma. Combination with BRAF/MEK inhibitors has been hindered by dose-limiting toxicities, but their role may yet to be found within the spectrum of biomarker-derived personalized melanoma management. The effect that CDK inhibitors can have as an adjunct to imm...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The cfDNA level in the CSF can be used as a supplemental marker for diagnosing LMS in hematologic malignancy patients. PMID: 33029963 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
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