Tau Contributes to Sevoflurane-induced Neurocognitive Impairment in Neonatal Mice

This study tested the hypothesis that differences in brain Tau amounts and in the activity of mitochondria –adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–Nuak1–Tau cascade between the neonatal and adult mice contribute to the age-dependent effects of sevoflurane on cognitive function.Methods 6- and 60-day-old mice of both sexes received anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane for 2  h daily for 3 days. Biochemical methods were used to measure amounts of Tau, phosphorylated Tau, Nuak1, ATP concentrations, and mitochondrial metabolism in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The Morris water maze test was used to evaluate cognitive function in the neonatal and adult mice.Results Under baseline conditions and compared with 60-day-old mice, 6-day-old mice had higher amounts of Tau (2.6 ± 0.4 [arbitrary units, mean ± SD]vs. 1.3 ± 0.2;P
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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In this study, we intravenously administrated the young mitochondria into aged mice to evaluate whether energy production increase in aged tissues or age-related behaviors improved after the mitochondrial transplantation. The results showed that heterozygous mitochondrial DNA of both aged and young mouse coexisted in tissues of aged mice after mitochondrial administration, and meanwhile, ATP content in tissues increased while reactive oxygen species (ROS) level reduced. Besides, the mitotherapy significantly improved cognitive and motor performance of aged mice. Our study, at the first report in aged animals, not only prov...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that NAR targeted microglial NLRP3 inflammasome to protect DA neurons against LPS-induced neurotoxicity. These findings suggest NAR might hold a promising therapeutic potential for PD. Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent central nervous system (CNS) degenerative disease. It is characterized by slow and progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra (SN) with the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neuritis (1). Although the etiology of PD remains unclear, amounts of studies have suggested that neur...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Using three different strategies to either prevent formation or enhance elimination of O2⋅_ during the post-asphyxial period, we saw both reduced leukocyte adherence and preserved BBB function with treatment. These findings suggest that agents which lower O2⋅_ in brain may be attractive new therapeutic interventions for the protection of the neonatal brain following asphyxia. Introduction Asphyxia is a relatively common source of neonatal brain damage (1), affecting ~2 in every 1,000 births (2). The hypoxic ischemia resulting from this oxygen deprivation can produce long-term sequelae, includi...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we explored the effect of vitamin B12 on nerve regeneration after TBI both in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, we investigated the role of ER stress during the vitamin B12 treatment for TBI by inspecting changes in neuronal apoptosis, microtubule, myelin regeneration, and axonal growth. Materials and Methods Animals Adult C57BL/6 male mice aged 6–8 weeks and weighing 20–26 g were purchased from the Animal Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). Animals were housed under a 12-h light/dark cycle at 21–23°C and provided access to food and water ad libitum. The care and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study evaluated the effect of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2) and 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) on rat liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidative damage and repair and to investigate their ability to induce protective effects against oxidative stress. Control rats, rats receiving a daily injection of T2 (N+T2) for 1 week and rats receiving a daily injection of T3 (N+T3) for 1 week, were used throughout the study. In the liver, mtDNA oxidative damage [by measuring mtDNA lesion frequency and expression of DNA polymerase γ (POLG)], mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial biogenesis [by measuring amplification of mtDNA/...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Marcia H. Ratner, Vidhya Kumaresan and David H. Farb* Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States Memory dysfunction is a symptomatic feature of many neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the basic underlying mechanisms of memory and altered states of circuitry function associated with disorders of memory remain a vast unexplored territory. The initial discovery of endogenous neurosteroids triggered a quest to elucidate their role as neuromodulators in normal and diseased brain functio...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
There are numerous cellular maintenance processes responsible for breaking down various component parts of the cell, proteins, and forms of metabolic waste. Autophagy, for example. Another is the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Broken or excess proteins are tagged with a ubiquitin molecule, which ensures they are broken up for raw materials by a proteasome. Proteasomes come in a variety of flavors, and all are very complex multi-protein structures. Like other forms of cellular maintenance, the pace at which the ubiquitin-proteasome system operates is regulated and responds to environmental cues such as lack of nutrients resul...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Molecular and Cellular EndocrinologyAuthor(s): Xue-Ying He, Carl Dobkin, Song-Yu YangAbstract17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are indispensable for downstream enzyme steps of the neurosteroidogenesis. Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo in neurons and glia from cholesterol transported into mitochondria, or by conversion from proneurosteroids, e. g. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone, through the same metabolic pathway as revealed in the de novo neurosteroidogenesis. Hormonal steroids generated from endocrine glands are transported into brain from...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we focused on two pathways of cardiomyocytes or heart cells: the Hippo pathway, which is involved in stopping renewal of adult cardiomyocytes, and the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) pathway, essential for cardiomyocyte normal functions." Previous work had hinted that components of the DGC pathway may somehow interact with members of the Hippo pathway. The researchers genetically engineered mice to lack genes involved in one or both pathways, and then determined the ability of the heart to repair an injury. These studies showed for the first time that dystroglycan 1, a component of the DGC ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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