Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: A Comprehensive Literature Review, Including Advances in Molecular Therapeutics

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of malignant human tumor. In Europe, the incidence of BCC ranges from 44.6 to 128 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually, whereas in the United States, the yearly incidence rate ranges between 500 and 1500. The global incidence has been calculated to be as high as 10 million cases of BCC per year. There are 2 main clinical patterns of BCC—the familial BCC in basal cell nevus syndrome and sporadic BCC. The etiology of cutaneous BCC is usually the result of the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and genetic factors. Somatic or germline mutations in the effector components of the hedgehog signaling pathway (ie, PTCH1, PTCH2, SMO or SUFU genes) are responsible for ∼90% of the cases of both sporadic and familial BCC, all causing a constitutive activation of the hedgehog pathway. Cutaneous BCC very rarely metastasizes, and diagnosis in metastatic sites can be very difficult. Metastatic BCC has weakly effective therapeutic options with a poor prognosis until few years ago. In 2012, small-molecule therapies, involving inactivation of the hedgehog signaling pathway, and capable of reducing tumor growth and progression have been introduced into clinical practice for advanced (locally advanced or metastatic) BCC. We performed a comprehensive literature review on metastatic BCC and found at least 915 cases reported to date. In addition, we extensively discussed the differential diagnosis of metastatic B...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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This study aims to describe the profile of eyelid cancers and also to explicate the management strategies of eyelid cancers.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Ophthalmic Surgery Source Type: research
Ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) generates digitally colored purple-pink images similar to H&E, without time-consuming tissue processing. It can be used during Mohs surgery for rapid detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC); however, reading EVCM images requires specialized training. An automated approach using a Deep Learning algorithm to BCC detection in EVCM images can aid in diagnosis. 40 BCCs and 28 negative ( “not-BCC”) samples were collected at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to create three training datasets: 1) EVCM image dataset (663 images), 2) H&E image dataset (516 images), and 3) a combina...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
INTRODUCTION
Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most commonly occurring neoplasm in patients with Gorlin syndrome. It is widely accepted that multiple basal cell carcinomas simultaneously develop in middle-aged patients wit...
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionDose reductions and interruptions were practical and did not impact the efficacy of sonidegib. In patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma who necessitate long-term treatment, dose interruptions may be beneficial for continued treatment and disease control.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01327053.
Source: Dermatology and Therapy - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
ConclusionWe report the first case of micronodular basal cell carcinoma arising on the scrotum. The goal of our article is to draw clinicians ’ attention to the possible involvement of unexposed skin with basal cell carcinoma, and we highlight the importance of accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment due to the aggressive nature of micronodular basal cell carcinoma.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 5188: Basal Cell Carcinoma Treated with High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy—Early Evaluation of Clinical and Dermoscopic Patterns during Irradiation Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13205188 Authors: Tomasz Krzysztofiak Grażyna Kamińska-Winciorek Andrzej Tukiendorf Magdalena Suchorzepka Piotr Wojcieszek Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent malignancy of the Caucasian population. Dermoscopy is an established diagnostic method providing the bridge between clinical and pathological examination. Surface skin high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is an organ sparing treatment me...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This article reviews commonly utilized nonsurgical options such as cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy, topical treatments, and radiation as well as systemic treatments including immunotherapies and chemotherapies.
Source: Advances in Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Which are the most effective interventions for primary basal cell carcinoma? This systemic review examined the current evidence for both surgical and non-surgical treatments.The British Journal of Dermatology
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Dermatology Journal Article Source Type: news
The objectives of this study are to assess PD-L1 expression and markers of local immune response in nodular, superficial, and morpheaform BCC, and compare it to normal, sun-exposed skin from the periphery of intradermal nevi. This was a retrospective study that included three histological subtypes of BCCs, and sun-exposed skin from the periphery of dermal nevi as quality controls. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were constructed with subsequent staining of H&E and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD4, CD8, FOXP3 and PD-L1. Non-automated quantification of the infiltrate in the intratumoral and stromal compartments on TMAs was perfor...
Source: Archives of Dermatological Research - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
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