Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study
The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36 cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 intestinal-type metaplasia/villous adenoma. Detailed clinical data were collected, and all cases were examined using targeted next-generation sequencing. On the basis of the literature, the first mutated gene in these tumors was reported to be KRAS in 11.3% of cases, followed by TERT promoter mutations in 28.5%. In addition to KRAS and TERT, other genes were also found to be frequently mutated in primary bladder adenocarcinoma, including TP53, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, APC, FBXW7, IDH2, and RB1. In our series, the most frequent gene mutations in primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas were as follows: TP53 (56%); BRCA2, KMT2B (both 33%); NOTCH2, KDR, ARID1B, POLE, PTEN, KRAS (all 28%); in urachal enteric adenocarcinoma they were as follows: TP53 (86%); PTEN, NOTCH (both 43%); in primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas they were as follows: KRAS, GRIN2A, AURKB (all 67%); ...
Conclusions: The results indicate that high-risk TNM stage and positive surgical margin are risk predictors of prognosis. Localized T stage, histologic grade, and surgical procedure cause no significant effect on patient prognosis. The extended partial cystectomy is the recommended surgical approach for patients with UrC. Active multimodal treatments may improve the survival of patients with recurrent and metastatic disease.Urol Int
ConclusionThis study illustrates that PTL of UAC and BAC was an independent predictor for survival. A-BAC had comparable characters and prognosis with O-BAC and should not be classified into and treated as UrC. For non-metastatic disease, non-metastatic D-BAC may need more intensive modality.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite recent reviews, treatment remains a medical challenge. The importance of surgery is clear, but it is necessary to continue investigate different added treatments.PMID:34080575