Indirect Impact of Ten-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Program on Reducing Antimicrobial Use and Tympanostomy Tube Placements in Finland
Conclusions: Antimicrobial use and TTP procedures reduced in unvaccinated children after PCV10 introduction in infants. These indirect effects contribute to the savings in health care resource use for otitis and may also help in combating antimicrobial resistance.
ConclusionThe novel prospects of radiation treatment strategies against planktonic and biofilm-related microbial infections seem feasible and are worth investigating further. However, potential risks involving radiation treatment must be considered in each individual patient.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have led to substantial declines in vaccine-type pneumococcal disease through direct protection of vaccinated persons as well as indirect protection of unvaccinated persons by reducing nasopharyngeal carriage and transmission.1,2 Despite this success, an estimated 4 million pneumococcal disease cases and 22,000 related deaths occur annually in the United States, with otitis media alone causing 1 •5 million cases in 2013.3 These infections are often treated with antibiotics, leading to growing concerns regarding Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
ConclusionStandard treatment guidelines did not consider local AMR recommendations for empirically prescribing antibacterials for common infectious syndromes. The AMR reviews published in the country produced poor methodologic quality evidence for clinical applications. This highlights the need to improve the methodologic quality to provide the best available evidence for clinical decision-making and curb the ongoing AMR in Ethiopia.Trial registrationRetrospectively registered (15/07/2020).
AbstractBackgroundAcute otitis media (AOM) is a common painful infection in children, with around 2.8 million cases presenting to primary care in England and Wales annually. Nearly all children who present to their general practitioner (GP) with AOM or AOM with discharge (AOMd) are treated with orally administered antibiotics. These can cause side effects; contribute to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance, and more rarely, allergic reactions. Alternative treatments, such as an antibiotic eardrops, or ‘delayed’ orally administered antibiotics, could be at least as effective and safe as immediate oral...
ConclusionsFixed antibiotic packs often do not match recommended treatment regimens, especially for children, potentially resulting in longer than necessary treatments and leftover doses in the community. As part of national stewardship, a move to an exact pill-count system, including for child-appropriate solid formulations, should be considered.
This report illustrates the importance of MALDI-TOF MS in the species level identification of anaerobes thereby facilitating the selection of appropriate and prompt adjuvant antibiotic therapy. This timely identification thus led to a favourable outcome in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance. PMID: 32344014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusions: Adding POCT to outpatient triage of ARI can reduce unnecessary antibiotics and antibiotic-related AEs, resulting in substantial cost savings. Further, near patient diagnostic testing can benefit health systems and patients by avoiding exposure to unnecessary drugs, side effects and antibiotic resistant pathogens.Key points for decision makersMany patients are unnecessarily treated with antibiotics for respiratory infections.Antibiotic misuse leads to unnecessary adverse events, secondary infections, re-consultations, antimicrobial resistance and increased costs.Point-of-care diagnostic tests used to guide anti...
ConclusionsFollowing penicillin V, we observed a remarkable enrichment of the aecal resistome, indicating that even narrow-spectrum antibiotics may have important consequences in selecting for a more resistant microbiome.
This study sought to quantify the effect of AMR on treatments for pediatric pneumococcal disease in Ethiopia. We developed the DREAMR (Dynamic Representation of the Economics of AMR) model that simulated children younger than 5 years who acquire pneumococcal disease (pneumonia, meningitis, and acute otitis media) and seek treatment from various health facilities in Ethiopia over a year. We examined the AMR levels of three antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin, and ceftriaxone), treatment failures, and attributable deaths. We used a cost-of-illness method to assess the resulting economic impact of AMR from a societal perspec...
ConclusionsPenicillin V had a remarkable impact on the fecal resistome indicating that even narrow-spectrum antibiotics may have important consequences in selecting for a more resistant microbiome.