Complement evasion strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
AbstractBorreliosis (Lyme disease) is a spirochetal disease caused by the species complex ofBorrelia burgdorferi transmitted byIxodes spp. ticks. Recorded to be the most common tick ‐borne disease in the world, the last two decades have seen an increase in disease incidence and distribution, exceeding 360 000 cases in Europe alone. If untreated, infection may cause skin symptoms, arthritis, neurological or cardiac complications. Borrelia spirochetes have developed strategies to evade the mammalian host immune system. These include the complement system, which is an important first‐line defence mechanism against invading microbes. To evade the complement, spirochetes bind soluble complement regulators FH, FHL‐1 and C4bp to their outer surfaces.B. burgdorferi spirochetes can inhibit the classical pathway of complement by the outer surface protein BBK32, which blocks activation of the C1 complex, composed of C1q, C1r and C1s. The FH binding proteins of borreliae include outer surface proteins OspE, CspA and CspZ. Following repeated infections, antibodies against these proteins develop and may provide functional immunity against borreliosis. This review discusses critical immune evasion strategies, focusing on complement evasion by borreliae.
At my animal hospital in upstate New York, an epicenter of the U.S. tick epidemic, my dog Fawn lets out a whimper as the veterinarian injects her with her annual Lyme disease shot. I roll my eyes. She doesn’t know how good she has it. The injection means that if a tick bites her (and in rural New York, a tick always does), the creepy crawly will feast on dog blood that’s been supercharged with a Lyme bacteria-killing substance, and Lyme disease won’t be transmitted to Fawn. I wish I could be shot up with that superpower. Currently, there is no human vaccine for Lyme disease—even though more than two...
Conclusions: According to the prevalence of B. garinii and B. afzelii in Europe, previously it was thought that Lyme disease presented as erythema migrans, and less frequently as neuroborreliosis; however, this study revealed that other syndromes may also be seen. In addition, we revealed that the longer it takes for erythema migrans to appear, the greater the likelihood of Lyme arthritis developing.PMID:33669940 | PMC:PMC7924869 | DOI:10.3390/medicina57020184