Flexibility is good except when it isn ’t: Study finds how scientists can reach different conclusions analyzing the same brain scans

Neuroimaging: Many Analysts, Differing Results (Dana Foundation): For decades, both the research and medical communities have relied on neuroimaging tools like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to give them a window into the living human brain. Such scans have provided unprecedented insights into the brain’s structure and function – and the field, as a whole, has used this technique to better understand how the brain gives rise to thoughts, emotions, and actions. But as neuroimaging technology has advanced, so have the different analysis tools and the number of ways one can evaluate the resulting data. Now, the results of unique research project, the Neuroimaging Analysis, Replication, and Prediction Study (NARPS), suggest that different analyses can lead to strikingly different results from the same data set. … “There are so many different software packages now, and different labs use different ones for all manner of different reasons. There are also different philosophies about how analyses should be done. All those little differences can add up,” he (Editor’s note: Russell Poldrack, a cognitive neuroscientist at Stanford University) said. “But, when we looked closely at what people provided, we could see that the results under the hood were substantially more similar than what they concluded. There was something about going from the intermediate steps of analysis workflow to determining the right threshold to denote a f...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Technology brain scans Brain-Imaging cognitive-neuroscientist flexibility fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging Imaging Techniques NARPS neuroimaging scientific method Source Type: blogs

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Conclusions: Although one cannot generalize results from a single man with FXS to the population of individuals with FXS, the current investigation demonstrates that performing sophisticated imaging of mGluR5 in men with FXS is feasible by a team of experts who specialize in FXS. Investigations with an adequate sample size will likely demonstrate that the proposed protocol will provide the tool to establish target engagement for clinical trials of novel agents for mGluR5 in FXS (Brašić, et al., 2019). The proposed protocol will then be key to establish drug occupancy for future clinical trials of novel agents for m...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Neurology & amp; Psychiatry (Poster Session) Source Type: research
UCLA researchers have found that it is possible to assess a person ’s ability to feel empathy by studying their brain activity while they are resting rather than while they are engaged in specific tasks.  Traditionally, empathy is assessed through the use of questionnaires and psychological assessments. The findings of this study offer an alternative to people who may have difficulty filling out questionnaires, such as people with severe mental illness or autism, said senior author Dr. Marco Iacoboni, professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.“Assessi...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Junjie Bu1,2, Ru Ma2, Chuan Fan3,4, Shinan Sun5, Yan Cheng3, Yi Piao3, Pengyu Zhang2, Chialun Liu2 and Xiaochu Zhang1,2,3,5*1Hefei Medical Research Center on Alcohol Addiction, Anhui Mental Health Center, Hefei, China2Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science &Technology of China, Hefei, China3School of Humanities &Social Science, University of Science &Technology of China, Hefei, China4Department of Medical Psychology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China5Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Nor...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: There may be an association between schizophrenia and HNPP. In observational studies, the deletion of interest (chromosome 17p12) was nearly 10 times more common in schizophreniform patients than in controls. This potential association could be pathophysiologically explained by the role of PMP22, which is mainly expressed in the peripheral nervous system. However, PMP22 mRNA and protein can also be found in the brain. PMP22 seems to play an important role in regulating cell growth and myelination, functions that are disturbed in schizophrenia. Such a connection obviously cannot be clarified on the basis of one ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate a potential correlation between NGF serum levels and brain structural differences in schizophrenia. Furthermore, a potential overlap between the results of a whole brain correlation analysis between GMV and NGF serum levels and the results of GMV reductions in schizophrenia patients were identified in a conjunction analysis.Materials and MethodsSubjectsEighteen schizophrenia patients from the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany, and 19 gender- and age-matched healthy controls from the general population participated in ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that TS patients manifest “trait” abnormalities in the timing of sequential motor tasks, which are in keeping with the continuation phase of time processing, likely controlled by the sensorimotor loop of the cortico-basal ganglia network. We also show that the abnormal lateralization of fine motor control, previously reported in the context of the structural sequencing of fine motor tasks, extends also to motor timing accuracy. Finally, we highlight SMA connectivity as a potentially pivotal neural substrate of adaptive compensation of motor timing deficits in fine manual ta...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Prefrontal gyrification is reduced in children with ADHD who also carry the DRD4 7R allele, and it relates to critical functional skills in the executive domain in carriers of the risk allele. More broadly, these effects highlight the importance of considering precise neurodevelopmental mechanisms through which risk alleles influence cortical neurogenesis and migration.IntroductionAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The disorder is thought to affect ar...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Xiao Z, Wu J, Wang C, Jia N, Yang X Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental and network-level disorder mainly diagnosed in children. The aim of the current study was to develop a computer-aided diagnosis method with high accuracy to distinguish school-aged children (5-12 years) with ASD from those typically developing (TD). The current study used multi-institutional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets of 198 school-aged participants from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II database and employed enhanced stacked auto-encoders to distinguish between school-aged...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
JM Abstract Imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present unparalleled opportunities to investigate the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, challenges such as deficits in social interaction, anxiety around new experiences, impaired language abilities, and hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli make participating in neuroimaging studies challenging for individuals with ASD. In this commentary, we describe the existent training protocols for preparing individuals with ASD for PET/MRI scans and our own experience developing a training p...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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