Cost of Nine Pediatric Infectious Illnesses in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Cost-of-Illness Studies

Conclusions and Implications of Key FindingsThe review yielded 37 articles and 267 sets of cost estimates. We found no cost-of-illness studies with cost estimates for hepatitis B, measles, rubella, or yellow fever from primary data. Most estimates were from countries in Gavi preparatory (28%) and accelerated (28%) transition, followed by those who are initiating self-financing (22%) and those not eligible for Gavi support (19%). Thirteen articles compared household expenses to manage illnesses with income and two articles with other household expenses, such as food, clothing, and rent. An episode of illness represented 1 –75% of the household’s monthly income or 10–83% of its monthly expenses. Articles that presented both household and government perspectives showed that most often governments incurred greater costs than households, including non-medical and indirect costs, across countries of all income statu ses, with a few notable exceptions. Although limited for low- and middle-income country settings, cost estimates generated from primary data collection provided a ‘real-world’ estimate of the economic burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Additional information on whether common situations pre venting the application of official clinical guidelines (such as medication stock-outs) occurred would help reveal deficiencies in the health system. Improving the availability of cost-of-illness evidence can inform the public policy agenda about he...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - Category: Health Management Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Most therapeutic proteins need post-translational modifications for their correct conformation, biological function, and half-life. Accordingly, microalgae could be considered as a cost-effective and more powerful platform for the production of a wide range of recombinant proteins such as antibodies, enzymes, hormones, and vaccines. PMID: 32983942 [PubMed]
Source: BioImpacts - Category: Research Tags: Bioimpacts Source Type: research
Authors: Assadiasl S, Fatahi Y, Zavvar M, Nicknam MH Abstract The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently caused pandemic Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Considering the serious medical, economic and social consequences of this pandemic and the lack of definite medication and vaccine it is necessary to describe natural immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 in order to exploit them for treating the patients and monitoring the general population. Moreover, detecting the most immunogenic antigens of the virus is fundamental for designing effective vaccines. Ant...
Source: Human Antibodies - Category: Biochemistry Tags: Hum Antibodies Source Type: research
A new survey finds many doctors fear they won't have enough of the flu vaccine to meet the demand this season.
Source: CBC | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News/Health Source Type: news
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2020Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Kazuki Shimizu, Taro Kondo, Yasuharu Tokuda, Kenji Shibuya
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2020Source: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Volume 35, Issue 3Author(s): Xu Chen, Gang Zhang, Shuaiying Hao, Lin Bai, Jingjing Lu
Source: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Costa AP, Giraldo PC, Cobucci RN, Consolaro ML, Souza RP, Canário LB, Machado PR, Randall Martins R, Vieira Baptista P, Jr JE, Gonçalves AK Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the course of IgG/IgA immune response in women immunized with bivalent vaccine and in women non-vaccinated with HPV infection, as well as evaluating the cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types. METHODS: Serum and cervical mucus samples were collected from infected and vaccinated women for HPV detection/genotyping and for detection of IgG/IgA anti-HPV/VLP (Virus-like Particles) by ELISA. ...
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed industry risk inequalities in manufacturing categories were present with regard to the risk of common cancers in Japan. PMID: 32986371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The serum level of ANXA4 might be a good biomarker for the early detection of HCC.. PMID: 32986366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In the present study, two OBI female patients with type 1 AIH were positive for anti-HBc but negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. With regard to the consequences of OBI, prior to prophylactic treatment, it is recommended to screen HBV markers including anti-HBc in all diagnosed patients with AIH.. PMID: 32986352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
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