Clinical impact of PET imaging in prostate cancer management

Purpose of review Imaging of prostate cancer has been a rapidly evolving field in recent years with the introduction of multiple new PET tracer agents. Introduction of novel imaging techniques into clinical practice requires careful evaluation, with the ultimate aims of improved patient outcomes, better sequencing of treatments, and cost effectiveness. The increased sensitivity and specificity of these new PET agents present both challenges and opportunities. We know they frequently change management, but are these effective management changes, and is it always in the best interests of the patients? Recent findings This review will focus on recent publications that provide high-level evidence for the use of PET in prostate cancer. It will discuss studies that have evaluated the clinical impact of PET imaging in prostate cancer and will review a number of trials that demonstrate the potential of PET to change current standard of care, from diagnosis, to prognostic capabilities in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Summary Evidence for the use of PET in prostate cancer is building with studies evaluating diagnostic accuracy of PET at all stages of prostate cancer. We review the evidence available, focusing on prospective trials that are measuring the impact of new technology on patient outcomes.
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research

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Authors: Verma A, Najahi-Missaoui W, Cummings BS, Somanath PR Abstract Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) has a very high mortality rate in men, in Western countries and lacks reliable treatment. The advanced-stage PCa cells overexpress P21 (RAC1) activated kinase-1 (PAK1) and secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) suggesting the potential utility of pharmacologically targeting these molecules to treat metastatic PCa. The small molecule, inhibitor targeting PAK1 activation-3 (IPA3) is a highly specific allosteric inhibitor of PAK1; however, it is metabolically unstable once in the plasma thus, limiting its utility as a ch...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Authors: Ye M, Tian H, Lin S, Mo J, Li Z, Chen X, Liu J Abstract Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system and its incidence increases with age. Studies have shown that resveratrol (Res) inhibits cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and promotes apoptosis. The present study evaluated the effect of Res in two human prostate cancer cell lines (the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line and the non-androgen-independent LNCaP-B cell line) on proliferation and apoptosis. A proliferation assay was used to demonstrate that Res inhibited proliferation of LNCaP and LNCaP-B cells in t...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
The objective of the current study was to compare the survival outcomes of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and in elderly and young patients receiving surgery and radiotherapy. The survival outcomes of patients with localized prostate cancer (age at diagnosis ≤79 years, clinical T1-3) initially treated with surgery or radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected from the population-based cancer registry of the Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. A 1:1 coarsened exact matching of age at diagnosis, clinical T stage and cancer differentiation was performed between the two treatment groups. Pat...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results show that BxPNI could be considered as a risk classification factor to identify the best candidates among younger PCa patients for further treatment and may also be used for developing active surveillance (AS) selection criteria for younger PCa patients. PMID: 32930036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Scand J Urol Source Type: research
Abstract Age is a significant risk factor for disease of the prostate. However, the mechanisms by which age increases disease risk have not been well described. We previously reported age-related changes within the inflammatory and luminal compartments of the mouse prostate. Old mouse prostates exhibit an expansion of the population of Trop2+ luminal progenitor cells and a reduction in the frequency and functional capacity of Trop2- luminal cells, indicating that different cell-types have distinct responses to aging. Whether distinct cell-types in the prostate share a common signature of aging has not been establi...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Exp Urol Source Type: research
Abstract Within the last decade, bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain inhibitors were introduced as the first in a wave of new agents known as bromodomain inhibitors. These original examples exhibited anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, and some have progressed to human clinical trials. BET proteins and their conserved N-terminal bromodomains, BD1 and BD2, have been implicated in the regulation of transcription. The early-generation BET inhibitors showed equal affinity for BD1 and BD2, and therefore the differential roles of BD1 and BD2 remain poorly understood. A recent study published in Science b...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Exp Urol Source Type: research
Abstract F-box and WD repeat domain containing (FBXW) family of E3 ligases has 10 members that ubiquitinate substrate proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation. Publicly archived datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Prostate Cancer Transcriptome Atlas (PCTA), and cBioPortal were analyzed for mRNA expression and genetic alterations of 10 FBXW genes. We found that FBXW7 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in primary prostate cancers compared to normal prostate tissues, whereas mRNA expression of FBXW8-10 was significantly increased in primary prostate cancers compared to normal prostate tissues. ...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Exp Urol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a unique molecular signature consisting of combined aberrations in TP53, PTEN and RB1 that is associated with poorer overall survival, as well as increasing prevalence of ETS gene fusions and differential gene expression patterns favoring aggressive disease and tumor progression. Identification of this subset of patients could inform prognostic decisions and provide a rationale for more aggressive or unique therapeutic approaches. PMID: 32929406 [PubMed]
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Exp Urol Source Type: research
Abstract Human prostate cancer often metastasizes to the bone, but the mechanisms are not quite clear. The difficulties in studying the biology of bone metastasis are due to lack of animal models with high frequency of bone metastases. In the present study, we tested two intra-arterial injection methods, i.e., intra-caudal artery injection and intra-femoral artery injection. Mouse prostate cancer cell line MPC3-luc was injected into C57BL/6J male mice via intra-caudal artery injection (n = 8) or intra-femoral artery injection (n = 11). We found one mouse developed metastatic tumors in both hind limbs and the tail ...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Exp Urol Source Type: research
Obtaining accurate segmentation of the prostate and nearby organs at risk (e.g., bladder and rectum) in CT images is critical for radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Currently, the leading automatic segmentation algorithms are based on Fully Convolutional Networks (FCNs), which achieve remarkable performance but usually need large-scale datasets with high-quality voxel-wise annotations for full supervision of the training. Unfortunately, such annotations are difficult to acquire, which becomes a bottleneck to build accurate segmentation models in real clinical applications. In this paper, we propose a novel weakly supervised ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
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