Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Nonsusceptibility Trends Among Adults with Pneumonia in the United States, 2009 ‒2017

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have led to substantial declines in vaccine-type pneumococcal disease through direct protection of vaccinated persons as well as indirect protection of unvaccinated persons by reducing nasopharyngeal carriage and transmission.1,2 Despite this success, an estimated 4 million pneumococcal disease cases and 22,000 related deaths occur annually in the United States, with otitis media alone causing 1 •5 million cases in 2013.3 These infections are often treated with antibiotics, leading to growing concerns regarding Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe novel prospects of radiation treatment strategies against planktonic and biofilm-related microbial infections seem feasible and are worth investigating further. However, potential risks involving radiation treatment must be considered in each individual patient.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionStandard treatment guidelines did not consider local AMR recommendations for empirically prescribing antibacterials for common infectious syndromes. The AMR reviews published in the country produced poor methodologic quality evidence for clinical applications. This highlights the need to improve the methodologic quality to provide the best available evidence for clinical decision-making and curb the ongoing AMR in Ethiopia.Trial registrationRetrospectively registered (15/07/2020).
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsFixed antibiotic packs often do not match recommended treatment regimens, especially for children, potentially resulting in longer than necessary treatments and leftover doses in the community. As part of national stewardship, a move to an exact pill-count system, including for child-appropriate solid formulations, should be considered.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study sought to quantify the effect of AMR on treatments for pediatric pneumococcal disease in Ethiopia. We developed the DREAMR (Dynamic Representation of the Economics of AMR) model that simulated children younger than 5 years who acquire pneumococcal disease (pneumonia, meningitis, and acute otitis media) and seek treatment from various health facilities in Ethiopia over a year. We examined the AMR levels of three antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin, and ceftriaxone), treatment failures, and attributable deaths. We used a cost-of-illness method to assess the resulting economic impact of AMR from a societal perspec...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
akır M Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) in children with chronic diseases that predispose them to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in comparison with healthy children.A cross sectional prevalence study was performed between February 2015 and February 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey. We enrolled 1024 children with chronic diseases and 394 healthy children aged 0-18 years.Overall prevalence of SPNP carriage was 9.8%. The prevalence of SPNP carriage among the healthy children was ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Professor Dame Sally Davies, England's Chief Medical Officer, recently warned that the world could face a  " post-antibiotic apocalypse.” She urged that, unless action is taken to halt the practices that have allowed antibiotic resistance to spread and ways are found to develop new types of antibiotics, we could return to the days when simple wounds, infections or routine operations, are life-threatening. To mark   World Antibiotic Awareness Week, 12th-18th November 2018,  we are highlighting Cochrane  evidence which supports decision-making in the appropriate use of antibiotics.&nb...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Among study children 2 to 17 years old with outpatient ARI, 29% were prescribed antibiotics at the initial visit and another 9% were prescribed antibiotics during the 30-day follow-up (most were for appropriate indications). Further decreasing antibiotic use in similar settings will likely require wider implementation of watchful waiting for AOM, a change in guidelines for pharyngitis management, and/or reductions in these diseases. PMID: 28257541 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Southern Medical Journal - Category: Journals (General) Tags: South Med J Source Type: research
Conclusions: The preliminary results showed a high resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae to commonly and routinely used antibiotics.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: 10.1 Respiratory Infections Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed an S. pneumoniae strain that caused 7 repeated pneumonia episodes in an 80-month-old patient with cerebral palsy during a period of 25 months. A total of 10 S. pneumoniae strains were obtained from sputum samples, and serotype 6B was isolated from samples from the first 5 episodes, whereas serotype 6A was isolated from samples from the last 2. Whole-genome sequencing showed clonality of the 10 isolates with 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomes. Among these SNPs, one single point mutation in the wciP gene was presumed to relate to the serotype switching from 6B to 6A, and the o...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research
Abstract Individuals
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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