Nonoperative Management Versus Radical Surgery of Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Therapy-Induced Clinical Complete Response: A Markov Decision Analysis

CONCLUSIONS: Nonoperative management and radical surgery resulted in similar (quality-adjusted) life-years. Nonoperative management should therefore be considered as a reasonable treatment option. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B246. MANEJO NO-QUIRÚRGICO VERSUS CIRUGÍA RADICAL DEL CÁNCER RECTAL DESPUÉS DE LA RESPUESTA CLÍNICA COMPLETA INDUCIDA POR TERAPIA NEOADYUVANTE: UN ANÁLISIS DE DECISIÓN DE MARKOV ANTECEDENTES: Se introdujo el tratamiento no quirúrgico del cáncer rectal para pacientes con respuesta clínica completa después de la quimiorradioterapia neoadyuvante para evitar la morbilidad quirúrgica a corto y largo plazo relacionada con la resección radical. OBJETIVO: Determinar los años de vida esperados y los años de vida ajustados por calidad para el tratamiento no-quirúrgico y la resección radical del cáncer rectal localmente avanzado, después de la respuesta clínica completa siguiente de la quimiorradioterapia neoadyuvante. DISEÑO: El modelo de Markov se usó para simular el manejo no-quirúrgico y la cirugía radical para un escenario de caso base en un horizonte temporal de 10 años. Se obtuvieron estimaciones para diversas variables clínicas después de una extensa búsqueda bibliográfica. El resultado se expresó tanto en años de vi...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Colorectal Cancer Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Patients have rectal cancer with IBD and without IBD have similar long-term and disease-free survival, despite lower rates of neoadjuvant treatment and higher margin positivity in patients with IBD. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B271. ¿LA ENFERMEDAD INFLAMATORIA INTESTINAL ACARREA PEORES RESULTADOS EN PACIENTES CON CÁNCER RECTAL? UN ANÁLISIS DE CASOS-COINCIDENTES ANTECEDENTES: Los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorrectal. Sin embargo, no se ha informado la supervivencia general y la supervi...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research
CASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old man underwent colonoscopy to evaluate rectal bleeding and was found to have a low rectal mass. Biopsy revealed moderately differentiated microsatellite stable adenocarcinoma. The tumor was palpable at the fingertip in the anterior rectum with the inferior border 5 cm from the anal verge by rigid proctoscopy. CEA was 0.8 ng/mL. CT imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of distant metastases. MRI confirmed a 5-cm mass with one 8-mm mesorectal lymph node metastasis and no extramural venous invasion. The tumor penetrated the mesorectal fat to a depth of 4&thinsp...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Resident’s Corner Source Type: research
Clin Colon Rectal Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713746In colon cancer, primary surgery followed by postoperative chemotherapy represents the standard of care. In rectal cancer, the standard of care is preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiation, which significantly reduces local recurrence but has no impact on subsequent metastatic disease or overall survival. The administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before surgery can increase the chance of a curative resection and improves long-term outcomes in patients with liver metastases. Hence, NACT is being explored in both primary rectal and colon cancers as an alternativ...
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Bruners Zimmermann The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors affecting intrahepatic progression-free survival (ihPFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) undergoing portal vein embolization (PVE) and subsequent (extended) right hemihepatectomy. A total of 59 patients (mean age: 60.8 ± 9.3 years) with CRCLM who underwent PVE in preparation for right hemihepatectomy were included. IhPFS and OS after PVE were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between the fo...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Purpose of review The value of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer is controversial with opinions varying from ‘not be used’ since randomized trials have not shown significant gains to ‘be used as in colon cancer’ as the need is the same and colon and rectal cancers are quite similar. This review will look upon data critically and with open eyes. Recent findings With the exception of one randomized phase II trial (ADORE) revealing a significant gain in disease-free survival using one more effective regimen (mFOLFOX) than bolus 5-fluorouracil leucovorin, no new data have been presented. Howev...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz and Francesco Sclafani Source Type: research
Authors: Huang Y, Gu X, Ge K, Fu G, Chu J, Wei W Abstract Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been established as the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, the role of radiotherapy (RT) has not been fully confirmed in advanced colon cancer (LACC). We postulated that patients with pathological T4N2 locally advanced colon cancer would benefit more from RT. 6715 pT4N2M0 colon cancer patients were included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The primary endpoints were 5-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Propensity score m...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In stage 2/3 rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy and surgery, the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with decreased recurrence-free survival in the entire cohort or in any subgroup, whereas tumor response to chemoradiotherapy is closely associated with disease recurrence. These findings have important consequences for treatment and surveillance decisions for patients with rectal cancer. Presurgical efforts that maximize tumor downstaging, such as total neoadjuvant therapy, may produce better oncologic outcomes than traditional adjuvant chemotherapy. See Video Abstract at http://lin...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Colorectal Cancer Source Type: research
PB, Shia J, Schultz N, Garcia-Aguilar J, Diaz LA, Goodman K, Saltz LB, Weiser MR, Smith JJ, Stadler ZK Abstract PURPOSE: Evaluate response of mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) rectal cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: dMMR rectal tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering were retrospectively reviewed for characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Fifty dMMR rectal cancer patients were identified by immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability analysis, with initial treatment response compared to a matched pMMR rectal cancer cohort. Germline and somatic mutation analyses were evaluated....
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A DNA repair gene score may predict patients likely to have poor response to chemoradiation. This score may be a relevant tool to be investigated in future studies focused on chemoradiation used in the context of organ preservation. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B104. PREDICCIÓN DE RESPUESTA DEFICIENTE A LA RADIO-QUIMIOTERAPIA NEOADYUVANTE EN PACIENTES CON CÁNCER RECTAL UTILIZANDO UNA PUNTUACIÓN DE DESREGULACIÓN DE REPARACIÓN DE ADN: ESCOGER LOS PERDEDORES EN LUGAR DE LOS GANADORES ANTECEDENTES: Los pacientes con cáncer rectal pueden someterse a ...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Colorectal Cancer Source Type: research
Abstract During the last two decades a neoadjuvant treatment concept has been established for an increasing number of malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; however, these concepts are still subject to a constant change concerning the indications and type of treatment. A prime example for this is rectal cancer. The rate of local recurrence in particular was significantly reduced by neoadjuvant therapy but until now it has not been possible to validly show an improvement in overall or disease-free survival. At the beginning of the millennium it was recommended to treat every rectal carcinoma...
Source: Der Chirurg - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Chirurg Source Type: research
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