Immunomodulatory Properties of Leishmania Extracellular Vesicles During Host-Parasite Interaction: Differential Activation of TLRs and NF- κB Translocation by Dermotropic and Viscerotropic Species

Leishmania infection causes considerable human morbidity and may develop into a deadly visceral form in endemic regions. The parasite infects macrophages where they can replicate intracellularly. Furthermore, they modulate host immune responses by using virulence factors (lipophosphoglycan, glycoprotein-63, and others) that promote survival inside the cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites are important for cell-cell communication in the proinflammatory milieu modulating the establishment of infection. However, information on the ability of EVs from different Leishmania species to modulate inflammatory responses is scarce, especially from those species causing different clinical manifestations (visceral vs. cutaneous). The purpose of this study was to compare macrophage activation using EVs from three Leishmania species from New World including L. infantum, L. braziliensis, and L. amazonensis. EVs were released from promastigote forms, purified by ultracentrifugation and quantitated by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) prior to murine macrophage exposure. NTA analysis did not show any differences in the EV sizes among the strains. EVs from L. braziliensis and L. infantum failed to induce a pro-inflammatory response. EVs from both L. infantum WT and LPG-deficient mutant (LPG-KO) did not show any differences in their interaction with macrophages, suggesting that LPG solely was not determinant for activation. On the other hand, EVs from L. amazonensis were ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Chengqi Wang, Justin Gibbons, Swamy R. Adapa, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Min Zhang, John H. Adams, Rays H.Y. Jiang
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the wound healing effects of babassu oil. In vitro, babassu oil increased the migration of L929 fibroblasts, inhibited the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and increased the levels of INF-γ and IL-6 cytokines production. In vivo, babassu oil accelerated the healing process in a full-thickness splinted wound model, by an increase in the fibroblasts number, blood vessels, and collagen deposition in the wounds. The babassu oil also increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the wound site and showed an anti-inflammatory effec...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Abdeta D, Kebede N, Giday M, Terefe G, Abay SM Abstract Microbial resistance to the few conventional antitrypanosomal drugs, increasing resistance of vectors to insecticides, lack of effective vaccines, and adverse effects of the existing antitrypanosomal drugs justify the urgent need for effective, tolerable, and affordable drugs. We assessed antitrypanosomal effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Echinops kebericho Mesfin roots against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Parasite load, packed cell volume (PCV), body weight, and rectal temperature in Swiss albino...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the crude extract of A. hispidum DC, one of the plants used traditionally to treat malaria, inhibits the growth of P. falciparum in vitro and could be a potential source of antimalarial drug. The report has highlighted genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the selected plant extracts on human leukocytes as well. PMID: 33029160 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
(Nagoya University) Using the model Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum, scientists have discerned the molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism and cross-species grafting, pinpointing enzymeβ-1,4-glucanase (GH9B3) as an important contributor to both phenomena. Targeting this enzyme may help control plant parasitism in crops.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
Conclusions: The low prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriage by the children living in the Cape Coast Metropolis suggests that the malaria control interventions in place in CCMA are highly effective and that additional malaria control interventions are required for the KEEA district to reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers. No molecular evidence of P. ovale and P. vivax was identified in the afebrile children sampled from the selected schools. PMID: 33029151 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
This study evaluates the dissipation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin residues in unhulled rice and the translocation of these insecticide residues in husked rice stored at 25 °C in a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) incubator for 35 days. For pesticide determination, the simple and efficient solid-liquid extraction methods with low temperature partition (SLE/LTP) followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD), for unhulled and husked rice were op timized and validated. These methods produced results of validated parameters consistent with Brazilian legislation, showing good efficiency (recovery r...
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Study seeks to compare microbiomes of our ancestors for clues to modern diseasesResearchers working knee-deep in 14th- and 15th-century latrines have found that bacterial DNA from human excrement can last for centuries and provide clues to how our gut contents have changed significantly since medieval times.Analysis of two cesspits, one in Jerusalem and the other in the Latvian capital, Riga, could help scientists understand if changes to our microbiome – the genetic makeup of the bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites and other microbes living inside us – affect modern-day afflictions.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Science Biology Microbiology Medical research Israel Archaeology Middle East and North Africa World news Source Type: news
Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in rural communities in Northeast Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2020;62:e74 Authors: Ferreira ALDS, Santana MA, Santos LVBD, Monteiro DP, Campos JHF, Sena LLJ, Mendonça VJ Abstract Chagas disease is an important endemic morbidity in Latin America affecting millions of people in the American continent. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted through the feces of the insect vector belonging to the subfamily Triatominae. The prese...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
In conclusion, we hope that this review brings about a new and more in-depth understanding of the part that Leishmania exosomes and various infectious agents play in the context of host-parasite interactions, with a particular focus on the establishment of infection. Future research in this field of investigations is critical for the development of new vaccine and diagnostic tools. Author Contributions The first draft was done by MO. AF and GD added new information. Funding Research in MO laboratory is supported by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (grant number: PJT-159765) and the Natural Sciences and Enginee...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
More News: Endemics | HIV-Leishmania Co-infection | Microbiology | Nanotechnology | Parasitic Diseases | Parasitology | Study | Translocation