The Effects of Androgens on T Cells: Clues to Female Predominance in Autoimmune Liver Diseases?
The immune system responds differently in women and in men. Generally speaking, adult females show stronger innate and adaptive immune responses than males. This results in lower risk of developing most of the infectious diseases and a better ability to clear viral infection in women (1–5). On the other hand, women are at increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases (AID) such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, and the autoimmune liver diseases autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) (6). Factors contributing to the female sex bias in autoimmune diseases include environmental exposure, e.g., microbiome, behavior, and genetics including X chromosomal inactivation of genes. Several lines of evidence and clinical observations clearly indicate that sex hormones contribute significantly to disease pathogenesis, and the role of estrogen in autoimmune diseases has been extensively studied. In many of these diseases, including the autoimmune liver diseases, T cells are thought to play an important pathogenetic role. We will use this mini-review to focus on the effects of androgens on T cells and how the two major androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver diseases (AILD).
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Meta GeneAuthor(s): Mansour Zamanpoor, Hamid Ghaedi, Mir Davood Omrani
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Brenda Bertado-Cortés, Claudia Venzor-Mendoza, Daniel Rubio-Ordoñez, José Renán Pérez-Pérez, Lucy Andrea Novelo-Manzano, Lyda Viviana Villamil-Osorio, María de Jesús Jiménez-Ortega, María de la Luz Villalpando-Gueich, Nayeli Alejandra Sánchez-Rosales, Verónica García-Talavera
Publication date: October 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 89Author(s): Fernando Lopes, Fernando A. Vicentini, Nina L. Cluny, Alexander J. Mathews, Benjamin H. Lee, Wagdi A. Almishri, Lateece Griffin, William Gonçalves, Vanessa Pinho, Derek M. McKay, Simon A. Hirota, Mark G. Swain, Quentin J. Pittman, Keith A. Sharkey
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CONCLUSIONS: Young adult IS patients in Korea exhibit low awareness and poor management of their risk factors. Although the short-term outcome was relatively favorable in those patients, having SLE was associated with unfavorable outcomes. More attention needs to be paid for improving awareness and controlling risk factors in this population. PMID: 33029967 [PubMed]
CONCLUSIONS: Paramagnetic rims might be a characteristic MRI finding for MS, and therefore they have potential as an imaging marker for differentially diagnosing MS from NMOSD using 3-T MRI. PMID: 33029961 [PubMed]
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Pramod Kumar, Anand Kulkarni, Mithun Sharma, Padaki Nagaraja Rao
CONCLUSION: When gastroenterologists encounter NAFLD/NASH patients, serum CK should be verified. If hyperCKemia, frontal baldness, a hatched face, history of cataract surgery, and grip myotonia are noted, the possibility of MD may be considered. PMID: 33033573 [PubMed]
Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoin...
Conclusions The hepatitis B vaccination program targeting newborns and infants does NOT make sense. The vaccination itself has not proven to be effective in preventing hepatitis B. There is very little risk of children becoming infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a disease that is not highly infectious and tends to affect adults in high risk groups. The course of the disease is usually self-limiting with lifelong immunity acquired. In contrast, many serious health consequences have resulted from the hepatitis B vaccination, including permanent disability and death. References http://www.nvic.org/nvic-archives...