Obesity: Have 20 years of policies had any effect?

There's been two decades of efforts to tackle obesity. Has anything worked?
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: Silva MAFS, Dechichi P, Limirio PHJO Abstract Childhood obesity is a considerable worldwide health problem and a major risk factor for several chronic diseases. Fat rich diets result in altered serum levels of lipids, cytokines and hormonal factors, which influence skeletal acquisition and promote microstructural and mechanical behavior changes in bone, especially to bone quality and quantity. However, the possible longterm implications of high-fat diets in childhood are controversial. Despite not fully understood, multiple signaling pathways which support bone tissue homeostasis are altered under hyperlip...
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Plunk EC, Richards SM Abstract The epigenome of an individual can be altered by endogenous hormones, environment, age, diet, and exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and the effects of these modifications can be seen across generations. Epigenetic modifications to the genome can alter the phenotype of the individual without altering the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression; they begin during germ cell development and embryogenesis and continue until death. Hormone modulation occurs during the agei...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
Authors: Antinozzi C, Sgrò P, Di Luigi L Abstract Among metabolic diseases, carbohydrate metabolism disorders are the most widespread. The most common glucose pathological conditions are acquired and may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart diseases, stroke, and kidney insufficiency. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have long been used as an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Different studies have demonstrated that PDE5i, by sensitizing insulin target tissues to insulin, play an important role in controlling the action of insulin and gluco...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a correlation between the required dose of metformin, BMI and hyperandrogenism. The dose of metformin should be adjusted to patients' BMI in order to obtain significant results in terms of clinical, metabolic and hormonal responses. PMID: 32767342 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
This study aimed to verify the effects of buying television advertised food in schoolchildren eating behaviors. We performed a cross-sectional study with fourth grade students of an elementary education in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We analyzed anthropometric data, the habit of buying television advertised food/beverages, and food consumption (two 24-hour dietary recalls). Logistic regression models were conducted and adjusted for gender, age, caloric intake, nutritional status, and social deprivation of area of residence. In total, 797 children were evaluated, the mean age was 9.81 (0.59) years, 50.7% wer...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research
Abstract The study aimed to analyze the association between sharing lunch or supper with parents/guardians and obesity in Brazilian adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents (ERICA in Portuguese). This was a cross-sectional, school-based study with adolescents 12 to 17 years of age. Obesity was classified by body mass index based on World Health Organization criteria, according to age and sex. The association between obesity and sharing lunch and supper with parents/guardians (never, sometimes, almost every day, and every day) was analyzed according to crude and sex- and ...
Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Cad Saude Publica Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: AV lower the constipation problems faced by patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine. Further research, repeating this pilot study with a meaningfully larger sample size and randomized with placebo, is needed. PMID: 32762505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research
The objective of this research is to determine the action of the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the obesity paradox of rats with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Twenty-four (average weight: 250 ± 20 g) pathogen-free adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly classified as group A and group B, while twelve obese (420 ± 20 g) pathogen-free adult male SD rats were classified as group C. Three groups received open tracheotomies after anesthesia. Group A then underwent spontaneous breathing for 4 h after endotracheal intubation, and ...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Clin Exp Pathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: work increased exposure to certain cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID: 32756748 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research
Depression has emerged as a major cause of mortality globally. Many studies have reported risk factors and mechanisms associated with depression, but it is as yet unclear how these findings can be applied to the treatment and prevention of this disorder. The onset and recurrence of depression have been linked to diverse metabolic factors, including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Recent studies have suggested that depression is accompanied by memory loss as well as depressive mood. Thus, many researchers have highlighted the relationship between depressive behavior and metabolic alterations from variou...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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