New study: Brain tumors may be seeded from distant site

(Children's National Hospital) A mouse model of glioblastoma, an aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain, suggests that this recalcitrant cancer originates from a pool of stem cells that can be a significant distance away from the resulting tumors. The findings of a new study, led by Children's National Hospital researchers and published July 22 in the journal Nature Communications, suggest new ways to fight this deadly disease.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Glioma is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults, and angiogenesis is one of the key factors contributing to its proliferation, aggressiveness, and malignant transformation. However, the disc...
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In this study, exosomes were isolated from MSCCXCR4+TRAIL transduced with CXCR4 and TRAIL using a lentiviral vector. Synergistic antitumor study showed that exosomeCXCR4+TRAIL exerted significant activity as a cooperative agent with carboplatin in an MDA-MB-231Br SCID mouse model, potentially engendering a novel strategy for advancing the treatment of brain metastases of breast cancer. Based on this study, further investigation of the effect of the vector on BBB and inducing apoptosis of brain tumors is warranted. In addition, the safety of the vector in animals during the treatment needs to be evaluated.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In vitro demonstration of salinomycin as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of SOX2‑positive glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Oncol Rep. 2020 Aug;44(2):777-785 Authors: Magrath JW, Raney WR, Kim Y Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest and most common form of primary brain tumor. Conventional treatments are ineffective at treating GBM due to the heterogeneous cellular makeup of the tumors as well as the existence of drug‑resistant cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have the ability to initiate tumorigenesis and self‑renew, which can lead to recur...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal grade IV glioma (WHO classification) and widely prevalent primary brain tumor in adults. GBM tumors harbor cellular heterogeneity with the presence of a small subpopulation of tumor cells, described as GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) that pose resistance to standard anticancer regimens and eventually mediate aggressive relapse or intractable progressive GBM. Existing conventional anticancer therapies for GBM do not target GBM stem cells and are mostly palliative; therefore, exploration of new strategies to target stem cells of GBM has to be prioritized for the development of e...
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Contributors : Kandpal Manoj ; Hao Huang ; Daniela MateiSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensRNA methylation plays an important role fine tuning translation and subsequently regulating cellular responses and cell fate. The fat mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO) was recognized as an m6A demethylase and described as an oncogenic factor in leukemia and brain tumors. FTO expression levels are suppressed in ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs). FTO induce cyclic AMP activity through targeting PDE4B and PDE1C by down-regulation of m6A levels in the mRNA tra...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Kandpal Manoj ; Hao Huang ; Daniela MateiSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensRNA methylation plays an important role fine tuning translation and subsequently regulating cellular responses and cell fate. The fat mass- and obesity-associated protein (FTO) was recognized as an m6A demethylase and described as an oncogenic factor in leukemia and brain tumors. FTO expression levels are suppressed in ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs). FTO induce cyclic AMP activity through targeting PDE4B and PDE1C by down-regulation of m6A levels in the mRNA transcript. In all or findings point to a tumor ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Authors: Koga T, Chen CC, Furnari FB Abstract Genome engineering using programmable nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein nine facilitated the introduction of genetic alterations at specific genomic sites in various cell types. These tools have been applied to cancer modeling to understand the pathogenic effects of the growing catalog of mutations found in human cancers. Pertaining to brain tumors, neural progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) engineered with differ...
Source: Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) Source Type: research
Abstract The metabolic complexity and flexibility commonly observed in brain tumors, especially glioblastoma, is fundamental for their development and progression. The ability of tumor cells to modify their genetic landscape and adapt metabolically, subverts therapeutic efficacy, and inevitably instigates therapeutic resistance. To overcome these challenges and develop effective therapeutic strategies targeting essential metabolic processes, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms underlying heterogeneity and define metabolic preferences and liabilities of malignant cells. In this review, we will discuss metabo...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis resulting from tumor resistance to anticancer therapy and a high recurrence rate. Compelling evidence suggests that this is driven by subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs) with tumor-initiating potential. ABC subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5) has been identified as a molecular marker for distinct subsets of chemoresistant tumor-initiating cell populations in diverse human malignancies. In the current study, we examined the potential role of ABCB5 in growth and chemoresistance of GBM. We found that ABCB5 is expressed in primary GBM tumors, in whi...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we collected and evaluated the epigenetically regulated-mRNA expression-based stemness index (EREG-mRNAsi) of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) for glioma patient samples, corrected through tumor purity. After EREG-mRNAsi correction, glioma pathological grade and survival were analyzed. The differentially expressed gene (DEG) co-expression network was constructed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) in TCGA glioma samples to find modules of interest and key genes. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the function of signifi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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