Vaccines for COVID-19 moving closer
As the world reels from illnesses and deaths due to COVID-19, the race is on for a safe, effective, long-lasting vaccine to help the body block the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The three vaccine approaches discussed here are among the first to be tested clinically in the United States. How vaccines induce immunity: The starting line In 1796, in a pastoral corner of England, and during a far more feudal and ethically less enlightened time, Edward Jenner, an English country surgeon, inoculated James Phipps, his gardener’s eight-year-old son, with cowpox pustules obtained from the arm of a milkmaid. It was widely believed at the time that once milkmaids became ill with cowpox, a relatively mild disease, they were no longer susceptible to smallpox. The young boy became quite ill, but recovered in about a week. Jenner then injected James with material from a smallpox pustule and observed that nothing untoward happened. A new scientific approach to disease prevention was born. A century later, it became clear that vaccination — a term Jenner coined from the Latin name for cowpox, Vaccinae variolae — worked because vaccines induce protective immune responses. We now know that vaccines can generate neutralizing antibodies by activating immune cells called B lymphocytes that secrete those molecules. Antibodies specifically recognize a shape on a virus or a toxin and bind to it, much like a key that tightly fits into a lock. They can then block the virus or toxin fro...
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Shreeram Akilesh, Cynthia C. Nast, Michifumi Yamashita, Kammi Henriksen, Vivek Charu, Megan L. Troxell, Neeraja Kambham, Erika Bracamonte, Donald Houghton, Naila I. Ahmed, Chyi Chyi Chong, Bijin Thajudeen, Shehzad Rehman, Firas Khoury, Jonathan E. Zuckerman, Jeremy Gitomer, Parthassarathy C. Raguram, Shanza Mujeeb, Ulrike Schwarze, M. Brendan Shannon
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)Author(s): Lina María Saldarriaga Rivera, Daniel Fernández Ávila, Wilson Bautista Molano, Daniel Jaramillo Arroyave, Alain Jasaf Bautista Ramírez, Adriana Díaz Maldonado, Jorge Hernán Izquierdo, Edwin Jáuregui, María Constanza Latorre Muñoz, Juan Pablo Restrepo, Juan Sebastián Segura Charry
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2020Source: Academic RadiologyAuthor(s): Neo Poyiadji, Chad Klochko, Jeff LaForce, Manuel L. Brown, Brent Griffith
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 170Author(s): Brian W. Haas, Fumiko Hoeft, Kazufumi Omura
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Authors: Hui KK PMID: 33034297 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Lam PT PMID: 33034296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Neurología (English Edition)Author(s): G. Alvarez Bravo, L. RamióTorrentà
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