Disease-Ridden Mosquitoes Fly Free as Health Depts Focus on COVID Disease-Ridden Mosquitoes Fly Free as Health Depts Focus on COVID

Communities must wait until potentially deadly mosquito-borne illnesses such as the West Nile virus sicken humans to find out if the insects are carrying disease.Kaiser Health News
Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news

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Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging human pathogen responsible for a systemic disease with generally indolent clinical course in immunocompetent hosts. Solid organ transplant recipients are vulnerable to WNV-induced encephalitis (WNVE) with no effective treatment and high mortality. We systematically assess various nuclei of the central nervous system in two human autopsy cases of WMVE using in situ hybridization (ISH) in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identify several types of projection neurons as exclusively affected in WNVE. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-viral innate immu...
Source: Clinical Neuropathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Clin Neuropathol Source Type: research
This study demonstrates the important role that surveillance plays in public health and strongly suggests the circulation of JEV among wildlife in Singapore, despite the absence of reported human cases. A One Health approach involving surveillance, the collaboration between public health and wildlife managers, and control of mosquito populations remains the key measures in risk mitigation of JEV transmission in the enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes. PMID: 32700679 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Viruses can modify the usage of their synonymous codons to mimic that of their hosts: investigation of codon usage may therefore help increase our understanding of virus biology. The similarity index (SiD or (D(A,B)) is a recent method for estimating the resemblance of the overall codon usage of the hosts to that of a certain virus. Here we report that this index has been systematically misinterpreted in the literature. We first review its mathematical meaning to show that a high value of SiD indicates low codon usage similarity, and not the opposite as frequently reported. We further compared SiD with fo...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Authors: Kalantari M, Salehi-Vaziri M, Pouriayevali MH, Baniasadi V, Salmanzadeh S, Kharat M, Fazlalipour M Abstract BACKGROUND &OBJECTIVES: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic Flavivirus transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. As there is no specific antiviral treatment or approved vaccine against WNV, control and prevention of the infection is the best strategy to reduce the burden of WNV-related diseases. The circulation of WNV has been indicated in several regions of Iran including the Khuzestan province. Considering the complex ecology of WNV, the latest data are necessary for the implementation o...
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The study points out that the half-life, expression and secretion levels of KFDV NS1 protein are not sufficient enough for its use as early diagnostic marker. The protein may have to be expressed in eukaryotic host to counter the lack of glycosylation in bacterial plasmid based expression of proteins. Hence, bacterially expressed KFDV NS1 protein may not be an ideal early diagnostic marker for the virus. PMID: 32655070 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Vector Borne Dis Source Type: research
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00413
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
The complement system is a key component of innate immunity which readily responds to invading microorganisms. Activation of the complement system typically occurs via three main pathways and can induce various antimicrobial effects, including: neutralization of pathogens, regulation of inflammatory responses, promotion of chemotaxis, and enhancement of the adaptive immune response. These can be vital host responses to protect against acute, chronic, and recurrent viral infections. Consequently, many viruses (including dengue virus, West Nile virus and Nipah virus) have evolved mechanisms for evasion or dysregulation of th...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Ongoing destruction of nature will result in stream of animal diseases jumping to humans, says reportCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageThe world is treating the health and economic symptoms of the coronavirus pandemic but not the environmental cause, according to the authors of aUN report. As a result, a steady stream of diseases can be expected to jump from animals to humans in coming years, they say.The number of such“zoonotic” epidemics is rising, from Ebola to Sars to West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever, with the root cause being the destruction of nature by humans and the ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Environment Wildlife Infectious diseases Farming Medical research Science World news United Nations Health Sars Meat industry Farm animals Source Type: news
AbstractWe evaluated the seroprevalence of Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in dogs and cats in C órdoba, Argentina. Monotypic and heterotypic serological patterns were differentiated by means of a neutralization test. The SLEV seroprevalence in dogs was 14.6% (44/302; 100% monotypic). Two out of 94 (2.1%, 100% monotypic) cats were positive for WNV only. Four dogs (1.3%) exhibited neutralizing antibody titers against SLEV and WNV. During the study, three dogs seroconverted to SLEV. Our study demonstrates that pets were useful for detecting viral activity and could be considered as sent...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Slunečko Tatjana Avšič-Županc West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. Birds are the reservoir for the virus; humans, horses and other mammals are dead-end hosts. Infections caused by WNV in humans can vary from asymptomatic infections to West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). In 1995, a serosurvey was performed in Slovenia on forest workers, and WNV specific IgG antibodies were confirmed in 6.8% of the screened samples, indicating that WNV is circulating in Slovenia. No human disease cases were detected in Slovenia until 2013, when the first case of WNV in...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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