Protective Effects of PACAP in Peripheral Organs
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide widely distributed in the nervous system, where it exerts strong neuroprotective effects. PACAP is also expressed in peripheral organs but its peripheral protective effects have not been summarized so far. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to review the existing literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of PACAP in non-neuronal cell types, peripheral tissues, and organs. Among others, PACAP has widespread expression in the digestive system, where it shows protective effects in various intestinal pathologies, such as duodenal ulcer, small bowel ischemia, and intestinal inflammation. PACAP is present in both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas as well as liver where it reduces inflammation and steatosis by interfering with hepatic pathology related to obesity. It is found in several exocrine glands and also in urinary organs, where, with its protective effects being mainly published regarding renal pathologies, PACAP is protective in numerous conditions. PACAP displays anti-inflammatory effects in upper and lower airways of the respiratory system. In the skin, it is involved in the development of inflammatory pathology such as psoriasis and also has anti-allergic effects in a model of contact dermatitis. In the non-neuronal part of the visual system, PACAP showed protective effects in pathological conditions of the cornea and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The positive role of PACAP h...
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Meta GeneAuthor(s): Mansour Zamanpoor, Hamid Ghaedi, Mir Davood Omrani
[Unilateral Irregularities in the Macular Pigment Epithelium in a 38-Year-Old Patient - "Acute Retinal Pigment Epitheliitis"]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2020 Oct 09;: Authors: Wykrota AA, Löw U, Fries FN, Seitz B, Abdin AD PMID: 33036057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Siamashvili M, Davis S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bromocriptine mesylate quick release (QR) is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and is the only oral, primarily centrally acting drug that can be used for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes. AREAS COVERED: The authors describe current recommendations on the use of bromocriptine mesylate QR. Major efficacy and safety parameters of the late phase trials, including The Cycloset Safety Trial, have been identified and presented. EXPERT OPINION: Efficacy of bromocriptine mesylate QR monotherapy appears to be low but is compensated by favorable safety pr...
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Vanda Craveiro, Elisabete Ramos, Joana Araújo
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Chelsea M. Stillman, Maria Rodriguez-Ayllon, Arthur F. Kramer, Charles H. Hillman, Andrés Catena, Kirk I. Erickson, Francisco B. Ortega
Publication date: October 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 89Author(s): Fernando Lopes, Fernando A. Vicentini, Nina L. Cluny, Alexander J. Mathews, Benjamin H. Lee, Wagdi A. Almishri, Lateece Griffin, William Gonçalves, Vanessa Pinho, Derek M. McKay, Simon A. Hirota, Mark G. Swain, Quentin J. Pittman, Keith A. Sharkey
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CONCLUSIONS: Neuro-ophthalmologic findings are mostly normal in patients with visual snow syndrome. Retinal or neurological diseases must be excluded as possible causes of visual snow. PMID: 33029971 [PubMed]
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Molecular MetabolismAuthor(s): Holger Henneicke, Sarah Kim, Michael M. Swarbrick, Jingbao Li, Sylvia J. Gasparini, Joanne Thai, Daphne Foong, Lauryn L. Cavanagh, Colette Fong-Yee, Elisabeth Karsten, Ruby C.Y. Lin, Mark S. Cooper, Hong Zhou, Markus J. Seibel
CONCLUSION: When gastroenterologists encounter NAFLD/NASH patients, serum CK should be verified. If hyperCKemia, frontal baldness, a hatched face, history of cataract surgery, and grip myotonia are noted, the possibility of MD may be considered. PMID: 33033573 [PubMed]
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