Iron Deficiency Anemia at Time of Vaccination Predicts Decreased Vaccine Response and Iron Supplementation at Time of Vaccination Increases Humoral Vaccine Response: A Birth Cohort Study and a Randomized Trial Follow-Up Study in Kenyan Infants
Background: Iron deficiency may impair adaptive immunity and is common among African infants at time of vaccination. Whether iron deficiency impairs vaccine response and whether iron supplementation improves humoral vaccine response is uncertain.Methods: We performed two studies in southern coastal Kenya. In a birth cohort study, we followed infants to age 18 mo and assessed whether anemia or iron deficiency at time of vaccination predicted vaccine response to three-valent oral polio, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, ten-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine and measles vaccine. Primary outcomes were anti-vaccine-IgG and seroconversion at age 24 wk and 18 mo. In a randomized trial cohort follow-up, children received a micronutrient powder (MNP) with 5 mg iron daily or a MNP without iron for 4 mo starting at age 7.5 mo and received measles vaccine at 9 and 18 mo; primary outcomes were anti-measles IgG, seroconversion and avidity at age 11.5 mo and 4.5 y.Findings: In the birth cohort study, 573 infants were enrolled and 303 completed the study. Controlling for sex, birthweight, anthropometric indices and maternal antibodies, hemoglobin at time of vaccination was the strongest positive predictor of: (A) anti-diphtheria and anti-pertussis-IgG at 24 wk (p = 0.0071, p = 0.0339) and 18 mo (p = 0.0182, p = 0.0360); (B) anti-pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin-IgG at 24 wk (p = 0.0423); and (C) anti-pneumococcus 19 IgG at 18 mo (p = 0.0129...
Authors: Mendenhall E, Musau A, Bosire E, Mutiso V, Ndetei D, Rock M Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a condition that both results from and produces social and psychological suffering. As 'diabetes' increases among low income patients in poorer nations, new challenges arise that drive, co-occur, and result from the condition. In this article, we describe how social suffering produces diabetes by way of addressing the varied social, psychological, and biological factors that drive diabetes and are reflected in diabetes experiences among patients seeking care at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. We recruited ...
Conclusions: The bibliometric analysis allowed to objectively record the productivity and visibility of the Regional System for Vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Region. PMID: 32774349 [PubMed]
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