Prostate cancer liver metastasis: Dormancy and resistance to therapy

Publication date: Available online 12 July 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Bo Ma, Alan Wells, Liang Wei, Junnian Zheng
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Purpose of review To discuss and highlight the recent findings in urological oncology focusing on nuclear medicine advances on imaging and therapy. Recent findings Testicular tumors: 18F-FDG as the standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with proven good accuracy in detecting metastatic testicular cancer; urothelial cancer: good accuracy of 18F-FDG PET in detecting distant metastases but poor results in detecting local disease; prostate cancer: prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for imaging prostate cancer with unprecedented accuracy in both staging and restaging and prospective...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research
Purpose of review Molecular imaging with PET/CT targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) receptor is increasingly utilized in men with prostate cancer (PCa), with clinical indications now expanding beyond biochemical recurrence. PSMA PET/CT often detects sub-centimetre size pathologic nodes and low-volume bone marrow disease that are occult on conventional imaging when the lesion does not cause sclerosis or osteoblastic reaction in surrounding bone. This review focuses on recent evidence for PSMA PET/CT in initial disease staging. Recent findings Several recent studies including a large randomized trial...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research
Purpose of review Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted PET imaging (PSMA PET) of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BCR) is implemented in routine management in many countries and recommended in European Association of Urology (EAU) and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines. Purpose of this review is to summarize recently published evidence of accuracy, management impact, and clinical benefit of PSMA PET in this setting and to state our opinion on the role of PSMA PET in future trials and clinical routine to improve patient outcomes. Recent findings The past two years saw an increase of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to explore the clinical application of different PET radiopharmaceuticals in prostate cancer (PCa), beyond inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Recent findings Choline PET represented in the last decades the standard of reference for PET imaging in PCa and has been recently included in clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of metastasis-directed therapy in oligo-metastatic disease. Fluciclovine, as synthetic amino acid, has been proposed for investigating PCa. The results obtained by the first prospective studies led to FDA approval in 2016 in patie...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research
Purpose of review Imaging of prostate cancer has been a rapidly evolving field in recent years with the introduction of multiple new PET tracer agents. Introduction of novel imaging techniques into clinical practice requires careful evaluation, with the ultimate aims of improved patient outcomes, better sequencing of treatments, and cost effectiveness. The increased sensitivity and specificity of these new PET agents present both challenges and opportunities. We know they frequently change management, but are these effective management changes, and is it always in the best interests of the patients? Recent findings Th...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research
Purpose of review Technical improvements in imaging equipment and availability of radiotracers, such as PSMA-ligands have increased the synergy between Urology and Nuclear Medicine. Meanwhile artificial intelligence is introduced in Nuclear Imaging. This review will give an overview of recent technical and clinical developments and an outlook on application of these in the near future. Recent findings Digital PET/CT has shown gradual improvement in lesion detection and demarcation over conventional PET/CT, but total-body PET/CT holds promise for a magnitude of improvement in scan duration and quality, quantification, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: PET IMAGING IN UROLOGY: Edited by Stefano Fanti and Declan G. Murphy Source Type: research
Purpose of review Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Poor specificity and sensitivity of total PSA often results in over and sometimes underdetection/treatment. Therefore, more specific and sensitive biomarkers for the detection and monitoring especially of clinically significant PCa as well as treatment-specific markers are much sought after. In this field, urine has emerged as a promising noninvasive source of biomarkers. Recent findings RNA-based biomarkers are the most extensively studied type of urinary nucleic acids. ERG-Score/MiPS (Mi-Prostate Score) and SelectMDx might be consi...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: CONTROVERSIES IN UROLOGY: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
Purpose of review We aimed to compare the accuracy of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy (MRI-TB) versus systematic biopsy (SB) in men suspected of having prostate cancer (PCa). Recent findings In biopsy-naïve patients, MRI-TB was more accurate to identify csPCa than SB. However, when comparing specifically MRI-TB versus transperineal (SB), we did not find any difference. Furthermore, in a repeat biopsy scenario, MRI-TB found more csPCa than SB as well. Finally, postanalysis comparing combined biopsy (SB plus MRI-TB) suggests that the later alone...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: CONTROVERSIES IN UROLOGY: Edited by Shahrokh F. Shariat Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the stability and therapeutic efficacy of the modified LNA- and PNA-type anti-miRs in a murine prostate cancer model under various treatment conditions. After verifying the anti-cancer potential of anti-miR21 by targeting tumor suppressor PTEN, the potential of the modified LNA- and PNA-type anti-miR21s was compared in vitro and in vivo. We found that PNA-type anti-miR21 showed better stability and therapeutic efficacy in the xenografted mouse tumor model than the LNA-type anti-miR21. Furthermore, PNA-type anti-miR21 treatment showed reduced tumor metastasis. This study may serve a...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men. Speckle-type pox virus and zinc finger protein (SPOP), the most frequently mutated gene in PCa, functions as a tumor suppressor via degradation of cancer-promoting substrates. However, its upstream regulation in PCa metastasis remains poorly determined. Here, in a Snail-induced metastatic PCa model, we observed an accelerated degradation of SPOP protein in cells, which is crucial for the PCa migration and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that binding to Snail promoted SPOP ubiq...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
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