Chagas Disease. Epidemiology and Barriers to Treatment

Chronic human infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, known as Chagas disease, results in heart failure and death in 20 to 30% of affected individuals. Recognition and treatment of the infection are difficult. Disease control requires elimination of the vector, the reduviid bug, that infests poor quality housing in endemic areas. In South America, control has largely succeeded in the Southern Cone countries — Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Southern Brazil and São Paulo, and Paraguay — but lags severely in the Northern Triangle (Central American) countries: El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Chronic human infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, known as Chagas disease, results in heart failure and death in 20%-30% of affected individuals. Recognition and treatment of the infection are difficult. Disease control requires elimination of the vector, the reduviid bug, that infests housing of poor quality in endemic areas. In South America, control has largely succeeded in the Southern Cone countries —Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, southern Brazil and São Paulo, and Paraguay—but lags severely in the Northern Triangle (Central American) countries: El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusions and Implications: Simvastatin, probably acting through the Notch1 pathway, decreases inflammation, improving cardiac function in chronically T. cruzi-infected mice. PMID: 32393497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, approval FUA-007-14) from the Unidad de Biología Comparativa (UBA) at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (PUJ, Bogotá, Colombia). All animal studies were conducted in accordance with the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” from UBA-PUJ. The present study was described according to the Animal Research: Reporting in vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) criteria from the National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) (32). Mice ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: We suggest some distinct molecular mechanisms for production of IL-1β in innate immune cells from patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease. MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases are associated with distinct disease outcomes and IL-1β production. Introduction Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (1), that affects millions of people in the world (2). During the acute phase, a diffuse and intense inflammation in the cardiomyocytes is observed, which is composed mainly of neutrophils, monocytes, and ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
American trypanosomiasis is caused by a parasite endemic of the Americas. Current migration has globalized Chagas disease. Acute infection usually resolves spontaneously. Nonetheless, 20% to 40% develop cardiomyopathy 20 to 30  years later. Progression to cardiomyopathy is devastatingly rapid, manifesting with heart failure and sudden death. Etiologic treatment is highly effective and recommended in those with acute infections, congenital infections, and parasite reactivation, and women of childbearing age, but in asympt omatic Trypanosoma cruzi carriers and patients with early cardiomyopathy remains controversial and...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChagas disease (CD) is endemic to much of Latin America, but also present in the United States (U.S.). Following a lengthy asymptomatic period, CD produces serious cardiac or gastrointestinal complications in 30 –40% of people. Less than 1% of the estimated six million cases in the Americas, including 326,000–347,000 in the U.S., are diagnosed. Infected persons are typically unaware and the bulk of clinicians are unfamiliar with current treatment guidelines. This review provides U.S. and other clinician s with the latest knowledge of CD treatment.Recent FindingsChagas cardiomyopathy (CC...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with ‘idiopathic’ cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission.
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Arrhythmias Source Type: research
Chagas disease (ChD), a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), remains a serious public health issue in Latin America and is an emerging disease in several non-endemic countries, where knowledge of the condition and experience with its clinical management are limited. Regionally, the disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment is common in patients with ChD, especially in those with Chagas dilated cardiomyopathy, the most severe manifestation of the disease, which frequently...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
ABSTRACT Chagas disease results from infection by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in Latin America. T cruzi is most commonly transmitted through the feces of an infected triatomine, but can also be congenital, via contaminated blood transfusion or through direct oral contact. In the acute phase, the disease can cause cardiac derangements such as myocarditis, conduction system abnormalities, and/or pericarditis. If left untreated, the disease advances to the chronic phase. Up to one‐half of these patients will develop a cardiomyopathy, which can lead to cardiac failure and/or ventricular arrhythmia...
Source: Clinical Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
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