Epidemiology, genomic structure, the molecular mechanism of injury, diagnosis and clinical manifestations of coronavirus infection: An overview

Narayan Prasad, N Gopalakrishnan, Manisha Sahay, Amit Gupta, Sanjay K Agarwal, On behalf of Covid-19 Working Group of Indian Society of NephrologyIndian Journal of Nephrology 2020 30(3):143-154 COVID-19 is caused by a novel beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) strain that was first discovered in 2019 in the Wuhan city of China. Based on virus genome sequencing studies, the bat is suspected as the natural host of virus, and infection might be transmitted from bats via unknown intermediate hosts like reptiles and snakes etc., to infect humans. COVID-19 is transmitted from person to person contact, primarily via droplet infection within the incubation period or after clinical manifestations of fever, cough, sneezing, sputum, dyspnea, and pneumonia and through contaminated fomites. COVID-19 enters the respiratory tract through the ACE2 receptor on alveoli through binding of s-protein of the virus and causes injuries though the cytopathic effect, as well as cytokines and other mediators, released after developing sepsis. ACE 2 is almost 100-fold higher in kidneys than lung, and the virus can also involve the kidney in the same manner. Kidney involvement manifests in the form of proteinuria, hematuria, and an acute rise in serum creatinine. Kidney involvement is an independent risk factor for mortality. Diagnosis is primarly made by detecting viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) in nasopharyngeal swab samples. Role of antibodies, both IgM and IgG are still...
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part AAuthor(s): Zhongyi Zhang, Wen-Xiong Wang, Nengjian Zheng, Yansheng Cao, Hongwei Xiao, Renguo Zhu, Hui Guan, Huayun Xiao
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Shreeram Akilesh, Cynthia C. Nast, Michifumi Yamashita, Kammi Henriksen, Vivek Charu, Megan L. Troxell, Neeraja Kambham, Erika Bracamonte, Donald Houghton, Naila I. Ahmed, Chyi Chyi Chong, Bijin Thajudeen, Shehzad Rehman, Firas Khoury, Jonathan E. Zuckerman, Jeremy Gitomer, Parthassarathy C. Raguram, Shanza Mujeeb, Ulrike Schwarze, M. Brendan Shannon
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)Author(s): Lina María Saldarriaga Rivera, Daniel Fernández Ávila, Wilson Bautista Molano, Daniel Jaramillo Arroyave, Alain Jasaf Bautista Ramírez, Adriana Díaz Maldonado, Jorge Hernán Izquierdo, Edwin Jáuregui, María Constanza Latorre Muñoz, Juan Pablo Restrepo, Juan Sebastián Segura Charry
Source: Reumatologia Clinica - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2020Source: Academic RadiologyAuthor(s): Neo Poyiadji, Chad Klochko, Jeff LaForce, Manuel L. Brown, Brent Griffith
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 170Author(s): Brian W. Haas, Fumiko Hoeft, Kazufumi Omura
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
This study therefore investigated the impacts of RRCC on air pollution based on detailed household heating data obtained from intensive face-to-face interviews in Shandong province, China. The total contributions and specific contributions of coal, stoves, and coal-stove combinations to air pollution were simulated using the WRF-CAMx-PSAT model. The RRCC for heating had a considerable impact on air pollution, contributing 36.1, 9.1, and 16.1% of atmospheric SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 in winter, respectively. Different coal-stove combinations had different impacts on air pollution and mitigation efficiencies. The combination of bi...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Abstract Limited studies focus on the occurrence, removal rate and seasonal variation of substituted diphenylamine antioxidants (SDPAs) in surface water and wastewater in China. In this paper, the detection method of SDPAs was established by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily variations suggested that significant variations were found for the concentrations of some SDPAs in the influent. It was found that the SDPAs could be detected in all the effluent samples and C8/C8-DPA was the predominant compound in two WWTPs. The levels of most SDPAs in the effluent were much lower t...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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