Structure-Based Design of Nipah Virus Vaccines: A Generalizable Approach to Paramyxovirus Immunogen Development

Licensed vaccines or therapeutics are rarely available for pathogens with epidemic or pandemic potential. Developing interventions for specific pathogens and defining generalizable approaches for related pathogens is a global priority and inherent to the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Nipah virus (NiV) poses a significant epidemic threat, and zoonotic transmission from bats-to-humans with high fatality rates occurs almost annually. Human-to-human transmission of NiV has been documented in recent outbreaks leading public health officials and government agencies to declare an urgent need for effective vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we evaluate NiV vaccine antigen design options including the fusion glycoprotein (F) and the major attachment glycoprotein (G). A stabilized prefusion F (pre-F), multimeric G constructs, and chimeric proteins containing both pre-F and G were developed as protein subunit candidate vaccines. The proteins were evaluated for antigenicity and structural integrity using kinetic binding assays, electron microscopy, and other biophysical properties. Immunogenicity of the vaccine antigens was evaluated in mice. The stabilized pre-F trimer and hexameric G immunogens both induced serum neutralizing activity in mice, while the post-F trimer immunogen did not elicit neutralizing activity. The pre-F trimer covalently linked to three G monomers (pre-F/G) induced potent neutralizing antibody activity, elicited responses to the greatest diversity of antigenic si...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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