Cytokines Induce Monkey Neural Stem Cell Differentiation through Notch Signaling.

Cytokines Induce Monkey Neural Stem Cell Differentiation through Notch Signaling. Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:1308526 Authors: Wang M, Yu L, Zhu LY, He H, Ren J, Pan J, Xie X, Cai C, Lu L, Tian H, Chen L, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Zhang C, Gao Z, Han XX Abstract The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has a limited ability to renew the damaged cells after a brain or spinal cord injury whether it is nonhuman primates like monkeys or humans. Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a potential therapy for CNS injuries due to their pluripotency and differentiation abilities. Cytokines play an important role in CNS development and repair of CNS injuries. However, the detailed cytokine signaling response in monkey neural stem cells is rarely studied. In our previous research, we isolated NSCs from the adult monkey brain and found the effects of cytokines on monkey NSCs. Now, we further analyzed the regulation mechanisms of cytokines to the proliferation of monkey NSCs such as bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), BMP4/leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), or retinoic acid (RA)/Forskolin. The data showed that BMP4 inhibited cell proliferation to arrest, but it did not affect the stemness of NSCs. BMP4/LIF promoted the astrocyte-like differentiation of monkey NSCs, and RA/forskolin induced the neuronal differentiation of monkey NSCs. BMP4/LIF and RA/forskolin induced monkey NSC differentiation by regulating Notch signaling. These results provide some theoretical evidenc...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

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Discussion Pediatric cancers in the US number about 12,000 per year. After injury, it is the second leading cause of death in children and adolescents. Cancer presentations vary widely, but often begin with non-specific symptoms that continue or progress depending on the location and tumor type. Patients can present with oncological emergencies especially if there are mechanical obstruction such as superior vena cava syndrome or cerebral herniation. More commonly are infections due to immunosuppression. Cancer treatment also causes its own myriad of problems that clinicians need to be aware of to diagnosis and treat, but a...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
In this study, researchers studied 438,952 participants in the UK Biobank, who had a total of 24,980 major coronary events - defined as the first occurrence of non-fatal heart attack, ischaemic stroke, or death due to coronary heart disease. They used an approach called Mendelian randomisation, which uses naturally occurring genetic differences to randomly divide the participants into groups, mimicking the effects of running a clinical trial. People with genes associated with lower blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol, and a combination of both were put into different groups, and compared against those without thes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Recent advances in research on HTLV-1 provide better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of HAM/TSP, and several clinical trials of novel therapies for patients with HAM/TSP have been initiated. However, long-term improvement of motor disability and quality of life still have not been achieved in HAM/TSP patients, and the clinical management remains challenging. Given that HAM/TSP is characterized by activated T-cells in both the periphery and CNS, studies in HAM/TSP will be highly informative for clarifying the pathogenesis of other neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis....
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Krisztina Banfai1,2, Kitti Garai1,2, David Ernszt2,3, Judit E. Pongracz1,2 and Krisztian Kvell1,2* 1Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary 2Szentagothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary 3Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Physiology, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary During senescence, Wnt4 expression is down-regulated (unlike their Frizzled receptors), while PPARgamma expression increases in the thymus. Together, these changes allow for thymic degeneration to occur, observed as adipose involut...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Novel Contribution of Secreted Amyloid-β Precursor Protein to White Matter Brain Enlargement in Autism Spectrum Disorder Deborah K. Sokol1, Bryan Maloney2, Cara J. Westmark3 and Debomoy K. Lahiri2,4* 1Pediatrics Section, Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States2Indiana Alzheimers Disease Center, Department of Psychiatry, Stark Neuroscience Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States3Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States4Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana Un...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Manish Kumar, Ritu Kulshrestha, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh JaggiAbstractImatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is used as a first line drug in the treatment of Philadelphia-chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Being tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib modulates the activities of Abelson gene (c-Abl), Abelson related gene (ARG), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), lymphocyte-specific protein (Lck), mitogen activated protein kinase (MA...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, HSC ageing is characterised by reduced self-renewal, myeloid and platelet HSC skewing, and expanded clonal haematopoiesis that is considered a preleukaemic state. The underlying molecular mechanisms seem to be related to increased oxidative stress due to ROS accumulation and DNA damage, which are influenced by both cell- and cell non-autonomous mechanisms such as prolonged exposure to infections, inflammageing, immunosenescence, and age-related changes in the HSC niche. Thus, HSC ageing seems to be multifactorial and we are only beginning to connect all the dots. The Price of Progress or the Waste...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This article describes the advantages and hurdles for the use of induced pluripotent cells as the starting material for a source of replacement cells for regenerative medicine. PMID: 30049501 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Ther Source Type: research
Conclusions The data demonstrated that BSYSC exhibited the neuroprotective effect against EAE by promoting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) proliferation and differentiation, thus facilitating remyelination. Sema3A/NRP-1, LIF/LIFR and Nkx6.2 are likely contributed to the effects of BSYSC on OPCs. Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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