Hypertension in obesity

Purpose of review The obesity epidemic is progressively affecting majority of individuals worldwide leading to many adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Increasingly concerning among them is obesity hypertension (HTN). In this review, we delve into the physiology and therapeutic options in obesity HTN as we discuss the implications of obesity HTN on society. Recent findings Obesity is the most common cause of primary HTN and is directly proportional to increases BMI. The significance of adiposity in obesity HTN centers on humoral mechanisms via stimulation of the renal-angiotensin system, leptin activity, sympathetic overdrive, and proinflammatory processes that potentiate vascular remodeling, which results in a higher incidence of the progression of many known serious cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle and medical therapies have been recommended for obesity and its sequelae, continued global progression of this disease has driven the development of newer therapies such as carotid baroreflex activation therapy, renal denervation, and selective leptin receptor antagonism. Summary The pathophysiology of obesity HTN has not yet been fully elucidated despite it being one of the oldest known diseases to mankind. Major efforts to understand obesity HTN endures, paving opportunities for newer and possibly superior therapeutic options
Source: Current Opinion in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: HYPERTENSION: Edited by Hector O. Ventura and Carl J. Lavie Source Type: research

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Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Orv Hetil Source Type: research
Katherine Samaras1,2,3*, Henrik Tevaerai4, Michel Goldman5, Johannes le Coutre6,7 and Jeff M. P. Holly8 1Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia 2Diabetes and Metabolism, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia 3St Vincent's Hospital, St Vincent's Clinical School, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia 4Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland 5Institute for Interdisciplinary Innovation in Healthcare, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium 6Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom 7Nes...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Spallone V Abstract The burden of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is expected to increase due to the diabetes epidemic and its early and widespread appearance. CAN has a definite prognostic role for mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Putative mechanisms for this are tachycardia, QT interval prolongation, orthostatic hypotension, reverse dipping, and impaired heart rate variability, while emerging mechanisms like inflammation support the pervasiveness of autonomic dysfunction. Efforts to overcome CAN under-diagnosis are on the table: by promoting screening for symptoms and signs; by ...
Source: Diabetes and Metabolism Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes Metab J Source Type: research
This article covers some of the advances of recent years in understanding the effects of varied forms of calorie restriction in humans. Efforts to quantify the results and find a good 80/20 point, at which most of the effects of longer and more stringent reductions in calorie intake are still evident, have resulted in practical outcomes. A number of quite interesting discoveries have been made along the way, such as the ability of longer fasting periods to clear out and replace damaged immune cells to some degree. The second phase of the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (C...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has...
Source: Current Hypertension Reports - Category: Primary Care Source Type: research
Abstract Hypertension affects over 25 % of the population with the incidence continuing to rise, due in part to the growing obesity epidemic. Chronic elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) are a hallmark of the disease and contribute to elevations in blood pressure through influences on the vasculature, kidney, and heart (i.e., neurogenic hypertension). In this regard, a number of central nervous system mechanisms and neural pathways have emerged as crucial in chronically elevating SNA. However, it is important to consider that “sympathetic signatures” are present, with differential incre...
Source: Current Hypertension Reports - Category: Primary Care Source Type: research
More people die as a result of physical inactivity than any other preventable risk factor including smoking, high cholesterol, and obesity. Cardiovascular disease, the number one cause of death in the United States, tops the list of inactivity-related diseases. Nevertheless, the vast majority of Americans continue to make lifestyle choices that are creating a rapidly growing burden of epidemic size and impact on the United States healthcare system. It is imperative that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which physical inactivity increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease and how exercise can prevent ...
Source: AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly prevalent condition paralleling the growing epidemic of obesity and type-2 diabetes. This disease shows a continuous spectrum of severity ranging from simple steatosis to overt non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) that can further progress towards cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma.1 Although the complete physiopathology is not fully understood, many factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress and lipotoxicity are involved in the onset of NAFLD.2 3 Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is independently associated with the different components of the m...
Source: Thorax - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Purpose of review: Although arterial hypertension is less common in children than in adults, there is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents not only because of the association of elevated values with the overweight epidemic, but also as cardiovascular functions are determined in childhood and track into adulthood. The purpose of the review is to discuss new aspects of childhood hypertension. Recent findings: Guidelines advocate determining BP in children as part of routine health maintenance. This recommendation was recently subject to review by the US Preventive Services Task Force...
Source: Current Opinion in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: HYPERTENSION: Edited by Franz H. Messerli and Stefano F. Rimoldi Source Type: research
Abstract More people die as a result of physical inactivity than any other preventable risk factor including smoking, high cholesterol, and obesity. Cardiovascular disease, the number one cause of death in the United States, tops the list of inactivity-related diseases. Nevertheless, the vast majority of Americans continue to make lifestyle choices that are creating a rapidly growing burden of epidemic size and impact on the US healthcare system. It is imperative that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which physical inactivity increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease, and how exercise can ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research
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