Recent clinical trials in valvular heart diseases

Purpose of review In recent years, no other field of cardiology has experienced a greater influx of transformational therapeutic options as valvular heart disease. The present review discusses the landmark trials published in the last 18 months that have shaped the modern day management of valvular heart diseases. Recent findings There have been several landmark trials in recent years, which have expanded the indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement to low-risk surgical patients and the use of MitraClip for patients with functional mitral regurgitation. Options for transcatheter management of right-sided valvular disease also continue to evolve, including promising results from early feasibility studies. Summary The development of novel transcatheter therapies for valvular heart disease has expanded the armamentarium of physicians treating patients with valvular heart disease. The present review will focus on the recent (within 2 years) trials in this field of interest.
Source: Current Opinion in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: CLINICAL TRIALS: Edited by Neal S. Kleiman Source Type: research

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ConclusionThis study presents IE profile and all ‐cause mortality in a large patient's cohort, comprising a 6‐years’ time window, a rare initiative in developing countries. Elderly and male patients predominated, whileS. aureus was the main microbiological agent. Patients conservatively treated presented higher mortality than surgically managed ones. Epidemiological studies from developing countries are essential to increase IE understanding.
Source: Journal of Cardiac Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractAnimal bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) are used to replace defective valves in patients with valvular heart disease. Especially young BHV recipients may experience a structural valve deterioration caused by an immune reaction in which α-Gal and Neu5Gc are potential target antigens. The expression of these and other carbohydrate antigens in animal tissues used for production of BHV was explored. Protein lysates of porcine aortic and pulmonary valves, and porcine, bovine and equine pericardia were analyzed by Western blotting usin g anti-carbohydrate antibodies and lectins.N-glycans were released by PNGase F d...
Source: Glycoconjugate Journal - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
ALTHOUGH TRANSCATHETER aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a bioprosthetic valve became a treatment option for calcific aortic stenosis (AS) in select adult patients in 2002, there is less experience with implantation in pediatric patients with a history of congenital heart disease (CHD) and coexisting aortic valve pathology.1,2 Although surgical repair remains the treatment of choice for primary aortic insufficiency (AI) in adults, TAVR feasibility has been demonstrated in select high-risk patients.
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang J, Zhu L, Li H, Tang Q Abstract In recent years, the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment generating ischemic tolerance mimicking ischemic pretreatment (IP) has been continuously confirmed, which was first found in the brain and then in the heart. Furthermore, researchers have observed the intensive cardioprotection impact of EA pretreatment on patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and heart valve replacement, indicating that EA pretreatment tends to be a valuable and advantageous avenue for preventing acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury or treatment ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Am J Perinatol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1712964 Objective Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs). We sought to describe survival, inhospital morbidities, and 2-year neurodevelopmental follow-up in LBW infants with CHD. Study Design We included infants with birth weight (BW)
Source: American Journal of Perinatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract Preoperative assessment with computed tomography (CT) is critical before transcatheter interventions for structural heart disease. CT provides information for device selection, device sizing, and vascular access approach. The interpreting radiologist must have knowledge of appropriate CT protocols, how and where to obtain the important measurements, and know additional imaging characteristics that are important to describe for optimal support of the interventionalist. CT is the modality of choice for pre-operative evaluation in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement and left atrial app...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research
In this study, the CRI accurately reflected acute hemodynamic changes associated with TcPVR. Further re search is justified to determine if the CRI can be useful as an early warning tool in patients with CHD at risk for decompensation during and after cardiac procedures.
Source: Pediatric Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Authors: Alkashkari W, Albugami S, Abbadi M, Niyazi A, Alsubei A, Hijazi ZM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction is common among individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD). Surgical intervention often carries prohibitive risks due to the need for sequential pulmonary valve (PV) replacements throughout their life in the majority of cases. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) is one of the most exciting recent developments in the treatment of CHD and has evolved to become an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with RVOT dysfunction. Areas covered: In thi...
Source: Expert Review of Medical Devices - Category: Medical Devices Tags: Expert Rev Med Devices Source Type: research
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) still affects more patients globally than degenerative valve disease. The vast majority of these patients live in low- to middle-income countries. Once symptomatic, they will need heart valve surgery. Unfortunately, prosthetic valves perform poorly in these patients given their young age, the high incidence of multi-valve disease, late diagnoses and often challenging socio-economic circumstances.Notwithstanding the fact that better valve designs would ideally be available, ill-informed decision making processes between bioprosthetic and mechanical valves are contributing to the poor results.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionAs clinicians, it can be challenging to provide our patients with accurate information on the risk of PPM implantation relative to their operation. A unit-specific data may be a more accurate method of informing our patients on this risk.
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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