Continued nicotine use promotes brain tumors in lung cancer patients, study suggests

(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers have discovered that nicotine promotes the spread of lung cancer cells into the brain, where they can form deadly metastatic tumors. The study, which will be published June 4 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that nicotine replacement therapies may not be suitable strategies for lung cancer patients attempting to quit smoking. In addition, the researchers show that the naturally occurring drug parthenolide blocks nicotine-induced brain metastasis in mice, suggesting a potential therapeutic option in humans.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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EML4-ALK fusions are targetable oncogenic drivers in a subset of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that can benefit from selected ALK inhibitors. Precise detection of ALK fusions may yield critical information for selection of appropriate therapy and hence improve patient survival. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in liquid biopsies using next generation sequencing (NGS) prior to or during treatment hold great promise for disease monitoring and treatment guidance of various cancers including NSCLC. Herein, we report a case of a 21-year-old advanced lung adenocarcinoma patient with a low abundanc...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionPatients with cancer who need treatment can be treated by taking some measures. These measures include observing individual and collective protection principles in patients and health-care personnel, increasing patients ’ awareness particularly about self-care behavior, performing a COVID-19 test, and taking a chest X-ray, before the treatment starts
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Long non‑coding RNA FLVCR1‑AS1 promotes glioma cell proliferation and invasion by negatively regulating miR‑30b‑3p. Mol Med Rep. 2020 May 15;: Authors: Gao W, Li H, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Zhao H, Liu F Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults that originates from glial cells. The prognosis of patients with high‑grade glioma is poor. It is therefore crucial to develop effective therapeutic strategies. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported as potential inducers or suppressors of tumor progression. Previous studies have indicated that the ...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
(Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center) Among people who have the most common type of lung cancer, up to 40% develop metastatic brain tumors, with an average survival time of less than six months. But why non-small-cell lung cancer so often spreads to the brain has been poorly understood.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
In patients with non ‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is one of the standard therapies for those suffering with intracranial metastatic NSCLC. Radiation‐induced necrosis (RIN) sometimes occurs as the result of the delayed effects of SRT. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of RIN typ ically shows hypointense and hyperintense lesions on T1‐ and T2‐weighted images, respectively. We herein report a patient with a growing brain cystic lesion mimicking RIN adjacent to a post‐radiation brain metastasis from NSCLC harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement. The patient un derwent...
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, there is no evidence of a demonstrable overall survival benefit with the addition of anti-EGFR therapy in first-line and recurrent glioblastomas. Newer drugs that are specially designed for glioblastoma targets may raise the possibility of success in this population, but data are lacking at present. Future studies should be more selective in pursuing people displaying specific EGFR targets. PMID: 32395825 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Majd N, Dasgupta P, de Groot J Abstract Immunotherapy has changed the landscape of treatment of many solid and hematological malignancies and is at the forefront of cancer breakthroughs. Several circumstances unique to the central nervous system (CNS) such as limited space for an inflammatory response, difficulties with repeated sampling, corticosteroid use for management of cerebral edema, and immunosuppressive mechanisms within the tumor and brain parenchyma have posed challenges in clinical development of immunotherapy for intracranial tumors. Nonetheless, the success of immunotherapy in brain metastase...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Eastman BM, Venur VA, Lo SS, Graber JJ Abstract Brain metastasis is the most common type of intracranial tumor affecting a significant proportion of advanced cancer patients. In recent years, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become commonly utilized. It has contributed significantly to decreased toxictiy, prolonged quality of life and general improvement in outcomes of patients with brain metastases. Frequent imaging and advanced treatment techniques have allowed us to treat more patients with large and numerous metastases extending their overall survival. The addition of targeted therapy and immunother...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Sci Source Type: research
In this study, we demonstrated that the NOR1 protein level was decreased in glioma tissue samples as compared to its normal counterpart. Exogenous expressed NOR1 protein in glioma U251 cells inhibits tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Re-expression of NOR1 induced cell cycle S to G2 phase arrest and suppressed its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Overexpression of NOR1 in U251 cells also led to a decrease of Ki67 expression in xenografts. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that NOR1 expression altered the expression of genes favored cell proliferation. Among the differentially expressed genes, FOXR2, a member of ...
Source: Neoplasma - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Neoplasma Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: For brain cancer patients, HCMV-reactivation after the start of radiochemotherapy is a frequent risk for cognitively detrimental but treatable encephalopathy and premature death. Routinely performed HCMV-diagnostics, assessing basophil counts and study-based anti-viral regimens are necessary to combat this hidden threat. PMID: 32060103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
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