Scientists discover that nicotine promotes spread of lung cancer to the brain

(Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center) Among people who have the most common type of lung cancer, up to 40% develop metastatic brain tumors, with an average survival time of less than six months. But why non-small-cell lung cancer so often spreads to the brain has been poorly understood.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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EML4-ALK fusions are targetable oncogenic drivers in a subset of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that can benefit from selected ALK inhibitors. Precise detection of ALK fusions may yield critical information for selection of appropriate therapy and hence improve patient survival. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in liquid biopsies using next generation sequencing (NGS) prior to or during treatment hold great promise for disease monitoring and treatment guidance of various cancers including NSCLC. Herein, we report a case of a 21-year-old advanced lung adenocarcinoma patient with a low abundanc...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In patients with non ‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is one of the standard therapies for those suffering with intracranial metastatic NSCLC. Radiation‐induced necrosis (RIN) sometimes occurs as the result of the delayed effects of SRT. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of RIN typ ically shows hypointense and hyperintense lesions on T1‐ and T2‐weighted images, respectively. We herein report a patient with a growing brain cystic lesion mimicking RIN adjacent to a post‐radiation brain metastasis from NSCLC harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement. The patient un derwent...
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, there is no evidence of a demonstrable overall survival benefit with the addition of anti-EGFR therapy in first-line and recurrent glioblastomas. Newer drugs that are specially designed for glioblastoma targets may raise the possibility of success in this population, but data are lacking at present. Future studies should be more selective in pursuing people displaying specific EGFR targets. PMID: 32395825 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Majd N, Dasgupta P, de Groot J Abstract Immunotherapy has changed the landscape of treatment of many solid and hematological malignancies and is at the forefront of cancer breakthroughs. Several circumstances unique to the central nervous system (CNS) such as limited space for an inflammatory response, difficulties with repeated sampling, corticosteroid use for management of cerebral edema, and immunosuppressive mechanisms within the tumor and brain parenchyma have posed challenges in clinical development of immunotherapy for intracranial tumors. Nonetheless, the success of immunotherapy in brain metastase...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: For brain cancer patients, HCMV-reactivation after the start of radiochemotherapy is a frequent risk for cognitively detrimental but treatable encephalopathy and premature death. Routinely performed HCMV-diagnostics, assessing basophil counts and study-based anti-viral regimens are necessary to combat this hidden threat. PMID: 32060103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
ConclusionSequencing of CSF ctDNA revealed specific mutation patterns in driver genes among patients with NSCLC and brain metastasis.Key pointsIn some small ‐sample studies, the importance of cerebrospinal fluid in guiding the treatment of cancerous brain lesions has been verified in that it may reflect genomic mutations of brain tumors relatively accurately.Cerebrospinal fluid is a new form of liquid biopsy that can be helpful in improving the management of patients with brain metastasis from non ‐small cell lung cancer by detecting genetic abnormalities specific to brain metastases.
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusions: Both WBRT and SRS are appropriate for the treatment of BM in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The incidence of BM in the hippocampus and peri-hippocampus region is low in our radiological data. Nearly 80% of patients with metachronous BM have oligo-metastatic lesions, indicating that SRS is the preferred therapy while PCI is not indicated.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Rationale: One-and-a-half syndrome (OAAH) is characterized as the combination of ipsilateral horizontal gaze palsy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia. OAAH syndrome accompanied with 7th and 8th cranial nerve palsy is called 16-and-a-half syndrome. We aimed to report the case of 16-and-a-half syndrome with metastatic pons tumor. Patient concerns: A 57-year-old male diagnosed with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis occurring 15 months ago was referred to our clinic with the chief complaint of horizontal diplopia and right gaze palsy. Diagnosis: According to the patient symptom, ocular examination, ...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to explore the efficacy and safety profile of apatinib monotherapy, or combined with chemotherapy or endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TKI in heavily pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases. We performed a retrospective analysis for relapsed NSCLC patients with brain metastases from our institute, whom received apatinib (250mg or 500mg p.o. qd) monotherapy, or combination with EGFR-TKI or chemotherapy as second- or more line systemic therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The objective response rate (ORR), disease control rat...
Source: Oncology Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Res Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe frequency of PD-L1+ myeloid cells correlated with the presence of brain metastases.  Tumor-derived IL-6 was capable of inducing PD-L1+ myeloid cells  in vitro, suggesting that monitoring of immunosuppressive factors in peripheral blood may identify new targets for therapeutic intervention in selected patients.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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