Intranasal Insulin Treatment Attenuates Metabolic Distress and Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice

This study is designed to explore the effects of intranasal insulin treatment on metabolic distress and early brain injury (EBI) after experimental SAH.MethodsSAH model was built by endovascular filament perforation method in adult male C57BL/6J mice, and then, insulin was administrated via intranasal route at 0, 24, and 48  h post-SAH. EBI was assessed according to the neurological performance, BBB damage, brain edema, neuroinflammatory reaction, and neuronal apoptosis at each time point. To evaluate metabolic conditions, microdialysis was used to continuously monitor the real-time levels of glucose, pyruvate, and la ctate in interstitial fluid (ISF) in living animals. The mRNA and protein expression of glucose transporter-1 and 3 (GLUT-1 and -3) were also tested by RT-PCR and Western blot in brain after SAH.ResultsCompared to vehicle, intranasal insulin treatment promoted the relative mRNA and protein levels of GLUT-1 in SAH brain (0.98  ± 0.020 vs 0.33 ± 0.016 at 24 h, 0.91 ± 0.25 vs 0.21 ± 0.013 at 48 h and 0.94 ± 0.025 vs 0.28 ± 0.015 at 72 h in mRNA/0.96 ± 0.023 vs 0.36 ± 0.015 at 24 h, 0.91 ± 0.022 vs 0.22 ± 0.011 at 48 h and 0.95 ± 0.024 vs 0.27 ± 0.014 at 72 h in protein,n =&thi...
Source: Neurocritical Care - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: A pregnant woman with severe headache should undergo brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID: 32655093 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research
Microglial activation-mediated neuroinflammation is a major contributor to early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) is the most abundant miRNAs in the central nervou...
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
ConclusionRCVS can now be accurately diagnosed using clinical and imaging features available upon presentation. Advances in knowledge about the risk factors, prognosis, and potential harmful effects of certain therapeutic strategies, are expected to optimize the management of this increasingly well recognized syndrome.
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
We describe the performance of the apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator in two patients. The first case involved an 8-year-old boy admitted with severe hypoxemia due to pneumonia. He presented with cardiorespiratory arrest, followed by unresponsive coma due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Two clinical exams revealed the absence of brainstem reflexes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed brain circulatory arrest. Three attempts were made to perform the apnea test, which were interrupted by hypoxemia; therefore, the apnea test was performed without disconnection from the mechanical vent...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
We describe the performance of the apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator in two patients. The first case involved an 8-year-old boy admitted with severe hypoxemia due to pneumonia. He presented with cardiorespiratory arrest, followed by unresponsive coma due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Two clinical exams revealed the absence of brainstem reflexes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed brain circulatory arrest. Three attempts were made to perform the apnea test, which were interrupted by hypoxemia; therefore, the apnea test was performed without disconnection from the mechanical vent...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
We describe the performance of the apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator in two patients. The first case involved an 8-year-old boy admitted with severe hypoxemia due to pneumonia. He presented with cardiorespiratory arrest, followed by unresponsive coma due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Two clinical exams revealed the absence of brainstem reflexes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed brain circulatory arrest. Three attempts were made to perform the apnea test, which were interrupted by hypoxemia; therefore, the apnea test was performed without disconnection from the mechanical vent...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
We describe the performance of the apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator in two patients. The first case involved an 8-year-old boy admitted with severe hypoxemia due to pneumonia. He presented with cardiorespiratory arrest, followed by unresponsive coma due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Two clinical exams revealed the absence of brainstem reflexes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed brain circulatory arrest. Three attempts were made to perform the apnea test, which were interrupted by hypoxemia; therefore, the apnea test was performed without disconnection from the mechanical vent...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
Abstract Acute brain injury is the leading cause of human death and disability worldwide, which includes intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebral ischaemia, traumatic brain injury and hypoxia-ischaemia brain injury. Currently, clinical treatments for neurological dysfunction of acute brain injury have not been satisfactory. Osteopontin (OPN) is a complex adhesion protein and cytokine that interacts with multiple receptors including integrins and CD44 variants, exhibiting mostly neuroprotective roles and showing therapeutic potential for acute brain injury. OPN-induced tissue remodelling and fu...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Whilst dysphagia is a commonly reported complication of stroke, it has received relatively little attention in the literature for patients following non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). AIMS: To investigate dysphagia incidence, risk factors, clinical progression and recovery in patients following non-traumatic SAH. METHODS &PROCEDURES: A prospective cohort study of 49 patients admitted to a tertiary neurosurgical referral unit with non-traumatic SAH over a 12-month period was conducted. Swallowing function was assessed by a speech-language pathologist within 72 h of medi...
Source: International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Int J Lang Commun Disord Source Type: research
Excessive cerebral inflammation plays a key role in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, possesses anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here we evaluated the beneficial effects of berberine against SAH-induced inflammatory response and the subsequent brain injury. Our data showed that berberine treatment significantly inhibited microglia activation and proinflammatory cytokines release. Concomitant with suppressed cerebral inflammation, berberine mitigated the subsequent brain injury as demonstrated by impro...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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