Evaluation of a Program to Improve Linkage to and Retention in Care Among Refugees with Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Three U.S. Cities, 2006-2018.

Evaluation of a Program to Improve Linkage to and Retention in Care Among Refugees with Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Three U.S. Cities, 2006-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 May 29;69(21):647-650 Authors: Young J, Payton C, Walker P, White D, Brandeland M, Kumar GS, Jentes ES, Settgast A, DeSilva M Abstract An estimated 257 million persons worldwide have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (1). CDC recommends HBV testing for persons from countries with intermediate to high HBV prevalence (≥2%), including newly arriving refugees (2). Complications of chronic HBV infection include liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which develop in 15%-25% of untreated adults infected in infancy or childhood (3). HBV-infected patients require regular monitoring for both infection and sequelae. Several studies have evaluated initial linkage to HBV care for both refugee and nonrefugee immigrant populations (4-9), but none contained standardized definitions for either linkage to or long-term retention in care for chronic HBV-infected refugees. To assess chronic HBV care, three urban sites that perform refugee domestic medical examinations and provide primary care collaborated in a quality improvement evaluation. Sites performed chart reviews and prospective outreach to refugees with positive test results for presumed HBV infection during domestic medical examinations. Linkage to care (29%-53%), retention in care (11%-21%), and outreach efforts (22%-7...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

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Abstract Viral hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting nearly two billion subjects; 3.3% of whom are from the WHO (World Health Organization) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO). It induces both acute and chronic hepatic disorders with subsequent liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a considerable percentage of patients based on the age of exposure. In this review, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCC prevalence, distribution and prevalence of different genotypes, and male/female infection frequencies in relation to the vaccination status in the Mediterranean countries were reported. St...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Conclusion: These data suggest the high potential of 5c3c-derived IL-21-expressing rHBV as a novel therapeutic against chronic HBV infection.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Authors: Piñero F, Tanno M, Soteras GA, Baña MT, Dirchwolf M, Fassio E, Ruf A, Mengarelli S, Borzi S, Fernández N, Ridruejo E, Descalzi V, Anders M, Mazzolini G, Reggiardo V, Marciano S, Perazzo F, Spina JC, McCormack L, Maraschio M, Lagues C, Gadano A, Villamil F, Silva M, Cairo F, Ameigeiras B, Argentinean Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (A.A.E.E.H) Abstract The A.A.E.E.H has developed this guideline for the best care of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from Argentina. It was done from May 2018 to March 2020. Specific clinical research questions were systematically sea...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Authors: Mohamed AA, Omran D, El-Feky S, Darwish H, Kassas A, Farouk A, Ezzat O, Abdo SM, Zahran FE, El-Demery A, Omran MM Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C viruses are leading causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC linked to hepatitis B. We hypothesised a role of leukocyte TLR7 mRNA in hepatitis C related liver cirrhosis and HCC, using alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver function tests as comparators. METHODS: We recruited 102 patients with HCV-related HCC, 97 with HCV related liver cirrhosis and 60 healthy con...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions: NAFLD-related HCCs were more often detected at an advanced stage with infiltrative patterns, although they showed no significant difference in survival compared to ALD-related or HBV-related HCCs. A future prospective research should be focused on identifying NAFLD patients who require strict surveillance in order to early detect and timely treat HCC. PMID: 32566546 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
ber J Abstract Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) often leads to development of chronic liver disease. In fact, 10% of infected adults and almost 90% of infected infants develop chronic hepatitis B associated with severe liver diseases, including acute liver failure, liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. At present there is no effective cure for chronic hepatitis B. The current treatment of chronically infected patients is long-term, expensive and relies on treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogs in combination with immune therapies, that frequently lead to adverse side effects. Recently, the National Inst...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Authors: Inoue T, Tanaka Y Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) cannot be eliminated completely from infected hepatocytes because of the presence of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). As chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is important to manage CHB to prevent HCC development in high-risk patients with high viral replicative activity or advanced fibrosis. Serum biomarkers are noninvasive and valuable for the management of CHB. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) correlates with serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA. In CHB patients with und...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Mol Hepatol Source Type: research
Lay summary: In a large cohort of Caucasians with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy, up to 12 years cumulative rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) did not differ between ETV and TDF in the total group or in any subgroup (with or without cirrhosis, naive or experienced to oral antivirals).
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality from chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the performance and outcomes of the Korean Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programme (PHBPP) and to investigate the impact of the current post-exposure immunoprophylaxis protocol. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed based on electronic data registry of infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected mothers between July 2002 and 2013. RESULTS: During the study period, 159,983 Korean infants were registered ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a global health threat with more than 15 million humans affected. Current treatment options are largely unsatisfactory leaving chronically infected humans at high risk to develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV is the only human satellite virus known. It encodes only two proteins, and requires Hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope protein expression for productive virion release and spread of the infection. How HDV could evolve and why HBV was selected as a helper virus remains unknown. Since the discovery of Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide as the essen...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
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