Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model

The current pandemic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recently identified in patients with an acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare its pathogenesis with that of previously emerging coronaviruses, we inoculated cynomolgus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)–CoV and compared the pathology and virology with historical reports of SARS-CoV infections. In SARS-CoV-2–infected macaques, virus was excreted from nose and throat in the absence of clinical signs and detected in type I and II pneumocytes in foci of diffuse alveolar damage and in ciliated epithelial cells of nasal, bronchial, and bronchiolar mucosae. In SARS-CoV infection, lung lesions were typically more severe, whereas they were milder in MERS-CoV infection, where virus was detected mainly in type II pneumocytes. These data show that SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19–like disease in macaques and provides a new model to test preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: This translational diagnostic tool will assist emergency and primary care clinicians, as well as out-of-hospital providers, in effectively managing people with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2. PMID: 32633414 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has prompted the repurposing of drugs on the basis of promising in vitro and therapeutic results with other human coronavirus diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). These repurposed drugs have mainly included remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, and hydroxychloroquine. Unfortunately, the first open-label, randomized controlled trials are showing the poor efficacy of these repurposed drugs. Th...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
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Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research
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Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Abstract Since December 2019, the global pandemic caused by the highly infectious novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV (COVID-19) has been rapidly spreading. As of April 2020, the outbreak has spread to over 210 countries, with over 2,400,000 confirmed cases and over 170,000 deaths.1 COVID-19 causes a severe pneumonia characterized by fever, cough and shortness of breath. Similar coronavirus outbreaks have occurred in the past causing severe pneumonia like COVID-19, most recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, over time, SARS-C...
Source: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Med Sci Source Type: research
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