The Role of Epigenetics in Type 1 Diabetes.

The Role of Epigenetics in Type 1 Diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1253:223-257 Authors: Xie Z, Chang C, Huang G, Zhou Z Abstract Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the interaction between genetic alterations and environmental factors. More than 60 susceptible genes or loci of T1D have been identified. Among them, HLA regions are reported to contribute about 50% of genetic susceptibility in Caucasians. There are many environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. Environmental factors may change the expression of genes through epigenetic mechanisms, thus inducing individuals with susceptible genes to develop T1D; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The major epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA. There has been extensive research on the role of epigenetic mechanisms including aberrant DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA in the pathogenesis of T1D. DNA methylation and microRNA have been proposed as biomarkers to predict islet β cell death, which needs further confirmation before any clinical application can be developed. Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases, histone methylation, and DNA methylation are potentially important for preventing T1D or in the reprogramming of insulin-producing cells. This chapter mainly focuses on T1D-related DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, as well as the...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease in young patients and is characterized by the loss of pancreatic β cells; as a result, the body becomes insulin deficient and hyper...
Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: Cellular and Molecular Immunology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Immunol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: After exclusion of other causes, the unexplained reoccurring hypoglycemia can be a remarkable feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin replacement therapy. PMID: 32597157 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
AbstractGenomic predisposition cannot explain the onset of complex diseases, as well illustrated by the largely incomplete concordance among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodelling and non-coding RNA, are considered to be the link between environmental stimuli and disease onset on a permissive genetic background in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. The paradigmatic cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), Sjogren ’s syndrome (SjS) and type-1 diabetes (T1D) share the loss of immunological tolerance t...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
Authors: Tovo PA, Rabbone I, Tinti D, Galliano I, Trada M, Daprà V, Cerutti F, Bergallo M Abstract Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been studied and proposed as relevant cofactors in several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), though with controversial results and no study at disease onset. In order to gather further information on the potential role of HERVs in the development of T1D we assessed the transcription levels of pol genes of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W in peripheral leucocytes from 37 children and adolescents with new-onset T1D and 50 age-matched control subjects. A PCR...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
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Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Biochemical Society Transactions - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Soc Trans Source Type: research
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