The Role of Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in the Treatment of Skin Cancer

AbstractSkin cancers remain the most common group of cancers globally, and the incidence continues to rise. Although localized skin cancers tend to have excellent outcomes following surgical excisions, the less common cases that become surgically unresectable or metastatic have been associated with poor prognosis and suboptimal treatment responses to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Development of monoclonal antibodies to programmed cell death-1 receptor and its ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) have transformed the management of metastatic melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. These agents, as monotherapies, are associated with response rates of approximately 40 –60%, many of which persist durably. Further efficacy is observed with combination immunotherapy in advanced melanoma. Early reports suggest similar activity in locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma. In this review, we describe common molecular features of skin cancers that may rende r them particularly susceptible to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and detail results from key clinical trials of these agents across skin cancers. Overall, the superior response rates of skin cancer to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 compared with other solid tumor types are likely due, at least in part, to a high mutational burd en and, in Merkel cell carcinoma, viral etiology. Although melanoma has been rigorously studied in the setting of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, more research is needed for the other skin cancer types to establish toxicity pr...
Source: BioDrugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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arma Terry A. Day Cancers that arise in the head and neck region are comprised of a heterogeneous group of malignancies that include carcinogen- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven mucosal squamous cell carcinoma as well as skin cancers such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. These malignancies develop in critical areas for eating, talking, and breathing and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality despite advances in treatment. Understanding of advances in the management of these various cancers is important for all multidisciplinary prov...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Radiotherapy plays a role in the definitive or adjuvant management of early and late stage skin cancers including nonmelanoma basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. The role of radiotherapy in skin cancers of the head and neck is reviewed including early and advanced-stage nonmelanoma skin cancers, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. In particular, the indications, oncologic outcomes, and technical aspects of radiotherapy for these diseases are discussed. PMID: 30420066 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Radiotherapy plays a role in the definitive or adjuvant management of early and late stage skin cancers including nonmelanoma basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. The role of radiotherapy in skin cancers of the head and neck is reviewed including early and advanced-stage nonmelanoma skin cancers, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. In particular, the indications, oncologic outcomes, and technical aspects of radiotherapy for these diseases are discussed.
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Cutaneous malignancy of the head and neck affects a large proportion of elderly patients. The severity ranges from small, easily treatable lesions to large, invasive, potentially metastatic tumors. Surgical treatment is the primary treatment of most skin cancers; however, geriatric patients are more likely to have multiple comorbidities that increase the risk of surgery. Multiple treatment modalities exist, including surgical, radiation, and medical therapy. Recommendations and treatment options for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma are outlined and reviewed.
Source: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent advances in the treatment of eyelid tumors have centered on the excision, evaluation of margins, role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, and adjunctive/adjuvant systemic and radiation therapy. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on these advances.Recent FindingsMohs excision of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma continues to provide the greatest success in complete excision of the cancer, especially in those cases of high-risk disease including medial canthal location and recurrent disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has proven useful in the assessment of early regional meta...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research
Authors: Amaral T, Garbe C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) mainly comprise two different entities: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); beneath these two entities, Merkel cell carcinoma, adnexal tumors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, angiosarcoma, and cutaneous lymphoma belong to NMSC. These rare skin tumors are not the topic of this review. BCC and SCC are the most common cancers diagnosed in humans. The preferred treatment is surgery, which in most cases is curative. Although a high recurrence rate is seen, these cancers rarely metastasize. Therefore, systemic tr...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Conclusions Our study confirms the increasing incidence and good survival of SCC and BCC and enhances knowledge on the epidemiology of the less incidental NMSC.
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Colebatch AJ, Di Stefano L, Wong SQ, Hannan RD, Waring PM, Dobrovic A, McArthur GA, Papenfuss AT Abstract Most cancer DNA sequencing studies have prioritized recurrent non-synonymous coding mutations in order to identify novel cancer-related mutations. Although attention is increasingly being paid to mutations in non-coding regions, standard approaches to identifying significant mutations may not be appropriate and there has been limited analysis of mutational clusters in functionally annotated non-coding regions. We sought to identify clustered somatic mutations (hotspot regions across samples) in functio...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Clark J, Wang S Abstract In many regions of the world, the most common type of parotid malignancy is metastatic malignancy. Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic melanoma are the most common pathologies that metastasize to the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. Other more rare metastatic malignancies from cutaneous primary sites include Merkel cell carcinoma, pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Systemic metastases can also occur from tumors such as renal cell carcinoma. This review will focus on the managemen...
Source: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Adv Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research
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