Update on Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan and Report of Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi Infections Among Travelers to Iraq - United States, 2018-2019.

This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy. PMID: 32437343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

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Reviving the "Moore swab": a classic environmental surveillance tool involving filtration of flowing surface water and sewage water to recover typhoidal Salmonella. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 Apr 24;: Authors: Sikorski MJ, Levine MM Abstract The Moore swab is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" micro...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract We investigated an outbreak of hepatitis A infection among children in an urban settlement of Vellore, South India. A total of 58 cases of jaundice were reported between April and August 2019. Sera from children who presented with jaundice were tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM. HAV IgM was positive in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 cases tested. These children also received a blood culture at the same time, as a part of the ongoing Surveillance for Enteric Fever in India (SEFI). Blood cultures from three children with confirmed hepatitis A infection grew Salmonella sp.: two with Salmonella Typhi and one with ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection in Laos based on isolates accrued over 18 years at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane. All blood cultures collected from patients presenting with fever submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Mahosot Hospital (February 2000-December 2018) were included. This included patients from Vientiane and four provincial hospitals and one typhoid outbreak investigation. A total of 913 (1.5%) of 60,384 blood cultures were positive for S. Typhi. The majority of isolates with data available (712/898, 79.3%) were ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study highlights the presence of potential genes as molecular targets to overcome the future endemic outbreaks in India. PMID: 31089918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
Abstract In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports inc...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Conclusions: The study provided evidence for the remarkable prevention potential of whole genome sequencing used as a routine tool in systems that integrate human, food and animal surveillance. PMID: 29616614 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
by Zoe A. Dyson, Duy Pham Thanh, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Carl Jeffries Mason, Apichai Srijan, Maia A. Rabaa, Phat Voong Vinh, Tuyen Ha Thanh, Guy E. Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Kathryn E. Holt Vaccines againstSalmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, are commonly used by travellers, however, there are few examples of national immunization programs in endemic areas. There is therefore a paucity of data on the impact of typhoid immunization programs on localised populations ofS. Typhi. Here we have used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise 44 historical bacterial isolates collected before and after a nation...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2017 Source:Food Control, Volume 73, Part B Author(s): Ewen C.D. Todd Gulf States in the Middle East have had to change rapidly from subsidence herding, farming and fishing communities to modern states through the exploitation of revenue-generating petroleum products. Fresh water is an even more precious commodity than oil today as this is seen as a rapidly diminishing resource through over use of aquifers with scarce and unpredictable rainfall not replenishing the needs of these countries which increasing rely on reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination of seawater but at a cost in terms of energy. Recyc...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak occurred due to S. Typhi contaminating the water supply. Sanitation and immunization are the two most important components to be stressed to prevent such outbreaks. PMID: 28256469 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
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