Clinical practice guidelines on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy: Ι. Pre-existing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clinical practice guidelines on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy: Ι. Pre-existing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hormones (Athens). 2020 May 15;: Authors: Anastasiou E, Farmakidis G, Gerede A, Goulis DG, Koukkou E, Kourtis A, Mamopoulos A, Papadimitriou K, Papadopoulos V, Stefos T Abstract Women with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) diagnosed prior to pregnancy are classified as having pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy has been estimated at 17% globally and 5.4% in Europe, differences existing among racial and ethnic groups, following the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Only a minority (approximately 15%) of the cases of diabetes during pregnancy represent women with pre-existing diabetes. Because of the rising prevalence of obesity and limited screening for diabetes in young women, there has been, globally, an increase in the diagnosis of previously unknown overt diabetes early in pregnancy; these women should be treated as women with pre-existing diabetes, as they may already have unrecognized complications (e.g., nephropathy and retinopathy). The Hellenic Endocrine Society and the Hellenic Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine commissioned an expert group to construct national guidelines on "Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy: Pre-existing type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus". Following a search for the best available evidence and critical appraisal of the search results, the writing group ...
Source: Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Hormones (Athens) Source Type: research

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ConclusionsWomen in our study with pre-gestational diabetes were overweight, were older and had long-standing diabetes mellitus. Our patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher BMI, were older, had a shorter duration of diabetes mellitus and had better diabetes control compared to women with type 1 diabetes. Women treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion had a higher rate of miscarriage with more congenital malformations. The initial inadequate diabetes control was significantly improved during pregnancy.
Source: Diabetes Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In conclusion, it remains unclear if brain-specific regional and temporal changes occur in the expression of the different APP variants during AD progression. Since APP is also found in blood cells, assessing the changes in APP mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells from AD patients has been considering an alternative. However, again the quantification of APP mRNA in peripheral blood cells has generated controversial results. Brain APP protein has been analyzed in only a few studies, probably as it is difficult to interpret the complex pattern of APP variants and fragments. We previously characterized the soluabl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This study aimed to compare the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) on endothelial function, oxidative stress and clinical fitness in patients with type 1 diabetes. Thirty-six type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 23.5 ± 6 years) were randomized into 3 groups: HIIT, MCT, and a non-exercising group (CON). Exercise was performed in a stationary cycle ergometers during 40 min, 3 times/week, for 8 weeks at 50–85% maximal heart rate (HRmax) in HIIT and 50% HRmax in MCT. Endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) [endothelium-depende...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In this study, we explore shared epigenetic mechanisms of the association between mtDNA content and insulin levels, supporting the developmental origins of this link. First, the association between cord blood insulin and mtDNA content in 882 newborns of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort was assessed. Cord blood mtDNA content was established via qPCR, while cord blood levels of insulin were determined using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Then the cord blood DNA methylome and transcriptome were determined in 179 newborns, using the human 450K methylation Illumina and Agilent Whole Human Genome 8 × 60 K microarrays, r...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study demonstrated that the incidence of ischemic heart disease and death were three times higher among men with low birth weight compared to men with high birth weight (5). Epidemiological investigations of adults born at the time of the Dutch famine between 1944 and 1945 revealed an association between maternal starvation and a low infant birth weight with a high incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease in these adults (23). Furthermore, Painter et al. reported the incidence of early onset coronary heart disease among persons conceived during the Dutch famine (24). In that regard, Barker's findin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsIn this large population-based cohort of women in Alberta, GDM was not associated with an increased risk for developing new-onset mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum.RésuméObjectifsExaminer la relation entre le diabète sucré gestationnel (DSG) et le développement de la maladie mentale (troubles affectifs et anxieux) au cours de la grossesse et dans l'année qui suit l'accouchement.MéthodesNous avons relié les bases de données cliniques et administratives pour repérer les diagnostics de DSG et de maladie mentale chez les mères q...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short [1,2] and long term adverse outcomes for both mother [3] and offspring, throughout childhood and into adulthood [4 –7]. Long term risks for the offspring include various features of the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, adiposity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, all of which may create and intergenerational vicious cycle of metabolic derangement [8]. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy is instru mental for this perpetuation, with publications indicating its role in type 1 [9] and monogenic diabetes [10].
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short[1,2] and long term adverse outcomes for both mother[3] and offspring, throughout childhood and into adulthood[4 –7]. Long term risks for the offspring include various features of the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, adiposity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, all of which may create and intergenerational vicious cycle of metabolic derangement[8]. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy is instrum ental for this perpetuation, with publications indicating its role in type 1[9] and monogenic diabetes[10].
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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