Survival and HIV-Free Survival Among Children Aged ≤3 Years - Eight Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2015-2017.

Survival and HIV-Free Survival Among Children Aged ≤3 Years - Eight Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2015-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 May 15;69(19):582-586 Authors: Jonnalagadda S, Yuengling K, Abrams E, Stupp P, Voetsch A, Patel M, Minisi Z, Eliya M, Hamunime N, Rwebembera A, Kirungi W, Mulenga L, Mushavi A, Ryan C, Ts'oeu M, Kim E, Dziuban EJ, Hageman K, Galbraith J, Mweebo K, Mwila A, Gonese E, Patel H, Modi S, Saito S Abstract Although mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is preventable through antiretroviral treatment (ART) during pregnancy and postpartum, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that 160,000 new HIV infections occurred among children in 2018 (1). Child survival and HIV-free survival rates* are standard measures of progress toward eliminating MTCT† (2). Nationally representative Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA)§ survey data, pooled from eight sub-Saharan African countries¶ were used to calculate survival probability among children aged ≤3 years by maternal HIV status during pregnancy and HIV-free survival probability among children aged ≤3 years born to women with HIV infection, stratified by maternal ART** status during pregnancy. Survival probability was significantly lower among children born to women with HIV infection (94.7%) than among those born to women without HIV infection (97.6%). HIV-free survival probability of c...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

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(University of North Carolina Health Care) Changing practices in the HIV/co-infections research community so that women, providers, and policy makers can make evidence-informed decisions around the use of medications during pregnancy is the goal of the new report, Ending the Evidence Gap for Pregnant Women around HIV and Co-infections: A Call to Action, issued today by the Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS: Seeking Equitable Study (PHASES) Working Group - an international and interdisciplinary team of 26 experts.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Hepatitis E is endemic in many countries throughout the developing world, in particular on the continents of Africa and Asia. The disease generally affects young adults and has a very high mortality rate, up to 20%, in pregnant women. This invention relates to the identification of a neutralization site of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and neutralizing antibodies that react with it. The neutralization site is located on a polypeptide from the ORF2 gene (capsid gene) of HEV. This neutralization site was identified using a panel of chimpanzee monoclonal antibodies that are virtually identical to human antibodies. Since this neutra...
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the cause of Hepatitis E, a liver disease that occurs primarily in developing countries due to fecal contaminated drinking water. Outbreaks of HEV infection have caused epidemics in Africa, Central and Southeast Asia and Mexico and cases of the disease have also been reported sporadically in more developed countries. Hepatitis E is most often overcome by a host ’s natural defenses; however the disease is more severe in pregnant women, who exhibit a 20% mortality rate due to HEV infection. Presently, no vaccines or therapeutic agents, which prevent or treat HEV infection, are commercially pr...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The COMBIND intervention was easily integrated into India's existing PMTCT programme and improved early uptake of two PMTCT components that require self-motivated health-seeking behaviour, thus providing preliminary evidence to support COMBIND as a potentially scalable PMTCT strategy. Further study would identify modifications needed to optimize other PMTCT outcomes. PMID: 32618115 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Data integration was feasible and identified gaps in programme implementation/documentation leading to corrective interventions. Incident infections among mothers are the largest contributors to MTCT: there is need to strengthen the prevention cascade among HIV-negative women. PMID: 32602644 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We successfully identified recently acquired infections among persons testing HIV-positive in routine testing settings and highlight the importance of incorporating additional information to accurately classify recent infection. We identified a number of groups with a significantly higher proportion of recent infection, suggesting recent infection surveillance, when rolled-out nationally, may help in further targeting primary prevention efforts. PMID: 32602625 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
This study examined maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnant HIV-positive women who use opioids.Southern Medical Journal
Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Family Medicine/Primary Care Journal Article Source Type: news
This study quantifies differentials in HIV care, treatment and mortality outcomes for men and women over time in South Africa. METHODS: We analysed population-wide linked anonymized data, including vital registration linkage, for the Western Cape Province, from the time of first CD4 count. Three antiretroviral therapy guideline eligibility periods were defined: 1 January 2008 to 31 July 2011 (CD4 cell count
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Conclusion: Efavirenz and didanosine exposure during pregnancy were associated with higher risk of neurologic abnormalities in CHEU, and dolutegravir exposure showed some suggestive associations, which warrant further monitoring.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research
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