A Vaccine Against COVID-19 Would Be the Latest Success in a Long Scientific History

Here’s betting you wouldn’t want anyone blowing smallpox scabs up your nose. But you might feel differently if you lived in 15th century China. Long ago, the Chinese recognized that people who had contracted smallpox once were immune to reinfection. They came up with the idea of preserving scabs from individuals who had suffered mild cases, drying them out, crushing them to a powder and blowing them up the nostril. For boys it was the right nostril, for girls it was the left because, well, 15th century. That is how the story of vaccines usually begins, though that version is decidedly incomplete. For one thing, it’s unclear how effective the early efforts at inoculation were. For another, no one knows just when the practice began, with some accounts pegging the date as long ago as 200 BCE. Scattered, less reliable stories of similar vaccination efforts have been reported in India and Africa too, but the evidence there is much thinner. So hat tip to Ming dynasty China, which apparently got the vaccine bandwagon rolling. Vaccination is much on the world’s collective mind today as researchers at pharmaceutical companies and universities race to develop a way to prevent the continued spread of COVID-19. The most optimistic projections suggest a vaccine could be in hand by January; other, more cautious predictions see a wait of at least 18 months. But in the long arc of vaccine history, even 18 months is something close to light-speed. Whatever is eventual...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Explainer health Source Type: news

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Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part AAuthor(s): Zhongyi Zhang, Wen-Xiong Wang, Nengjian Zheng, Yansheng Cao, Hongwei Xiao, Renguo Zhu, Hui Guan, Huayun Xiao
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Shreeram Akilesh, Cynthia C. Nast, Michifumi Yamashita, Kammi Henriksen, Vivek Charu, Megan L. Troxell, Neeraja Kambham, Erika Bracamonte, Donald Houghton, Naila I. Ahmed, Chyi Chyi Chong, Bijin Thajudeen, Shehzad Rehman, Firas Khoury, Jonathan E. Zuckerman, Jeremy Gitomer, Parthassarathy C. Raguram, Shanza Mujeeb, Ulrike Schwarze, M. Brendan Shannon
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)Author(s): Lina María Saldarriaga Rivera, Daniel Fernández Ávila, Wilson Bautista Molano, Daniel Jaramillo Arroyave, Alain Jasaf Bautista Ramírez, Adriana Díaz Maldonado, Jorge Hernán Izquierdo, Edwin Jáuregui, María Constanza Latorre Muñoz, Juan Pablo Restrepo, Juan Sebastián Segura Charry
Source: Reumatologia Clinica - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2020Source: Academic RadiologyAuthor(s): Neo Poyiadji, Chad Klochko, Jeff LaForce, Manuel L. Brown, Brent Griffith
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Curious what people think with pandemic and lack of away rotations.
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Radiation Oncology Source Type: forums
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 170Author(s): Brian W. Haas, Fumiko Hoeft, Kazufumi Omura
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Academic PediatricsAuthor(s): Bonnie Crume
Source: Academic Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
This study therefore investigated the impacts of RRCC on air pollution based on detailed household heating data obtained from intensive face-to-face interviews in Shandong province, China. The total contributions and specific contributions of coal, stoves, and coal-stove combinations to air pollution were simulated using the WRF-CAMx-PSAT model. The RRCC for heating had a considerable impact on air pollution, contributing 36.1, 9.1, and 16.1% of atmospheric SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 in winter, respectively. Different coal-stove combinations had different impacts on air pollution and mitigation efficiencies. The combination of bi...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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