Reproductive Health Disparities in the USA: Self-Reported Race/Ethnicity Predicts Age of Menarche and Live Birth Ratios, but Not Infertility

AbstractSelf-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) contribute to disparities in several health domains, although research on their effects on women ’s reproductive function has largely focused on links between SES and age of menarche. Here, we assessed whether race/ethnicity, SES, and downstream correlates of SES such as food security and health-insurance security are associated with age of menarche, infertility, and live birth ratios (ratios of recognized pregnancies resulting in live births) in the USA. We used cross-sectional data from 1694 women aged 12–18 years for menarche (2007–2016), 974 women aged 23–45 for infertility (2013–2016), and 1714 women aged 23–45 for live birth ratios (2007–2016) from the National Healt h and Nutrition Examination Survey. We estimated multiple linear and logistic regressions with survey weights to test these associations. When controlling for lifestyle (activity levels, smoking, alcohol consumption) and physiological factors (diabetes, weight status), non-Hispanic (NH) black and Hi spanic girls reported a significantly lower age of menarche by about 4.3 (standard error [SE] = 0.08,p 
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective cohort study demonstrated that patients who underwent ART were at increased risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with women who conceived spontaneously. These complications may be attributed in part to the relatively high multiple pregnancy rate after ART. Elective single embryo transfer should be promoted in China to reduce the obstetrical risks of ART pregnancy. Singletons of ART pregnancy exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications as well, suggesting that underlying infertility or other maternal or parental factors may contribute to the adverse outcomes. P...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Besides ageing, a number of non-modifiable lifestyle-related factors, as smoking, elevated consumption of caffeine and alcohol, stress, agonist sports, chronic exposure to environmental pollutants, and other nutritional habits exert a negative impact on women’s fertility. In particular, metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia commonly associated to hypercaloric diets are suspected to promote infertility in women either by direct damage to oocyte health and differentiation, or by indirect interference with the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, resulting in dysfunctional oogenesis. Obese women sh...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion The periconceptional environment and lifestyle factors modify sperm epigenome. This alteration might be maintained in the zygote and throughout development, thereby leading to the inheritance of newly acquired pathologies. The role of sperm miRNA, not only as innovative markers of fertility issues but also as vectors involved in the inheritance of paternal diseases, appears to be crucial. Overweight and obesity seem to alter sperm miRNA profile, thereby leading to transmission of different miRNA profiles in zygote, with consequences on embryo development. In long term, metabolic disorders have been described in...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, a link between mitochondrial changes and infant temperament has also been suggested. Maternal psychosocial stress and lifetime trauma have been associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in the placenta (115, 116).IndividualityChronic stress links changes in the epigenetic landscape with health conditions (117). Different cell types are characterized by distinct patterns of gene expression due to developmental, environmental, physiological, and pathological reasons (117). Epigenetic mechanisms affect gene function in a dynamic way as a result of different environmental exposures during fetal dev...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
igi L Abstract It is universally accepted that lifestyle interventions are the first step towards a good overall, reproductive and sexual health. Cessation of unhealthy habits, such as tobacco, alcohol and drug use, poor nutrition and sedentary behavior, is suggested in order to preserve/improve fertility in humans. However, the possible risks of physical exercise per se or sports on male fertility are less known. Being "fit" does not only improve the sense of well-being, but also has beneficial effects on general health: in fact physical exercise is by all means a low-cost, high-efficacy method for prev...
Source: Reproductive Biology - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Reprod Biol Endocrinol Source Type: research
Conclusion: The DPP is the new source of non-toxic anti-cancer agents to use as a dietary supplement in the pre-treatment of cancer. PMID: 30397583 [PubMed]
Source: BioImpacts - Category: Research Tags: Bioimpacts Source Type: research
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring?SUMMARY ANSWEROffspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThere is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThe Upstate KIDS Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of inf...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
This report presents baseline estimates of the use of these preventive services before the publication of QFP that can be used to monitor progress toward improving the quality of preventive care received by women and men of reproductive age. PERIOD COVERED: 2011-2013. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: Three surveillance systems were used to document receipt of preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age as recommended in QFP. The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) collects data on factors that influence reproductive health in the United States since 1973, with a focus on fertility, sexual act...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the impact of preconception lifestyle interventions on live birth, birth weight and pregnancy rate?SUMMARY ANSWERLifestyle interventions showed benefits for weight loss and increased natural pregnancy rate, but not for live birth or birth weight.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYEvidence on the practice and content of preconception counseling and interventions is variable and limited.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONSystematic review and meta-analysis (MA). Main search terms were those related to preconception lifestyle. Database searched were Ovid MEDLINE(R), EBM Reviews, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus. No l...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOne begins to see improvement in glycemic measures and triglycerides with small amounts of weight loss, but with greater levels of weight loss there is even greater improvement. In fact, the relationship between weight loss and glycemia is one that is very close.Recent FindingsThis is fortunate for diabetes prevention; it takes only small amounts of weight loss to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance, and after the 10  kg of weight loss, one cannot demonstrate much additional improvement in risk reduction. Modest weight loss (5 to 10%) is also associated with ...
Source: Current Obesity Reports - Category: Eating Disorders and Weight Management Source Type: research
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