Abnormal Kalirin Signaling in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Abnormal Kalirin Signaling in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Dec 12; Authors: Remmers C, Sweet RA, Penzes P Abstract Changes in dendritic spines structure and function play a critical role in a number of physiological processes, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, and are intimately linked to cognitive function. Alterations in dendritic spine morphogenesis occur in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and likely underlie the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with these disorders. The neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) kalirin is emerging as a key regulator of structural and functional plasticity at dendritic spines. Moreover, a series of recent studies have genetically and functionally linked kalirin signaling to several disorders, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Kalirin signaling may thus represent a disease mechanism and provide a novel therapeutic target. PMID: 24334022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

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ConclusionWe have accomplished the first synthesis of the novel SV2A radiotracer [18F]UCB-J. [18F]UCB-J is demonstrated to be an excellent imaging agent and may prove to be useful for imaging and quantification of SV2A expression, and synaptic density, in humans.
Source: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Takao Mandai, Maki Kasahara, Emi Kurimoto, Maiko Tanaka, Motohisa Suzuki, Atsushi Nakatani, Haruhide KimuraAbstractActivation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1R) may be an effective therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and schizophrenia. Previously, the M1R/M4R agonist xanomeline was shown to improve cognitive function and exert antipsychotic effects in patients with AD and schizophrenia. However, its clinical development was discontinued because of its cholinomimetic side effects. We compared...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Yuanbo Wu, Meiqiao Chen, Jielong JiangAbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is becoming one of the most emerging pathological process in the etiology of neurological disorders. Other common etiologies of the neurological disorders are aging and oxidative stress. Neurodegenerative disorders for instance Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Multiple sclerosis, Neuropathic pain and Alzheimer's disease involves mitochondrial dysfunction and is regarded as the core of their pathological process...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Abstract 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, first introduced to the market in the mid-1980s, are proven efficient agents to counteract chemotherapy-induced emesis. Nonetheless, recent investigations have shed light on unappreciated dimensions of this class of compounds in conditions with an immunoinflammatory component as well as in neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The promising findings from multiple studies have unveiled several beneficial effects of these compounds in multiple sclerosis, stroke, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. Reports continue to uncover important roles for 5-HT3 receptors in the physio...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light shows promise as a diagnostic test to assist with the often challenging diagnostic dilemma of distinguishing psychiatric disorders from neurodegenerative and neurological disorders. Further studies are warranted to replicate and expand on these findings, including on plasma neurofilament light. PMID: 31220922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Aust N Z J Psychiatry Source Type: research
An in-depth look at violence and its relation to schizophrenia. Is violence a symptom of schizophrenia? Do mass attackers always have schizophrenia? Are schizophrenics dangerous? Studies say people with schizophrenia are more likely to be a victim of a crime than the perpetrator. However, James Holmes, the movie theater mass murderer, was said to have paranoid schizophrenia. And a person can plead not-guilty by reason of insanity in court. This seems to be contrary to the idea of non-violence in mental illness. Host Rachel Star Withers, a diagnosed schizophrenic, and co-host Gabe Howard delve into these intense subjects i...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Inside Schizophrenia Stigma Violence and Aggression Mental Disorder Mental Health Mental Illness Paranoid Schizophrenia violence and mental illness violence and mentally ill Source Type: blogs
Researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles said that for the first time they have duplicated a patient's blood-brain barrier (BBB) with stem cells. In turn, the research team said this can be used to develop personalized medicine and new techniques to research brain disorders. The new research, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, is a collaboration between Dr. Gad Vatine of BGU's Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research Center and Department of Physiology and Cell Biology and Dr. Clive N. Svendsen, of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. The BBB bl...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Imaging Source Type: news
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) contribute substantially to the morbidity of Alzheimer disease (AD) and related disorders (ADRD). Psychotic symptoms of hallucinations and/or delusions frequently occur as the disease progresses and are among the most impairing NPS in AD.1 Regarding potential risk factors, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both all-cause dementia and AD,2,3 and low levels of vitamin D are related to onset of psychotic symptoms in non-AD disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Abstract Synapses are well known as the main structures responsible for transmitting information through the release and recognition of neurotransmitters by pre- and post-synaptic neurons. These structures are widely formed and eliminated throughout the whole lifespan via processes termed synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning, respectively. Whilst the first process is needed for ensuring proper connectivity between brain regions and also with the periphery, the second phenomenon is important for their refinement by eliminating weaker and unnecessary synapses and, at the same time, maintaining and favoring the strong...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
Discussion: findings are controversial and should be interpreted with caution, since most of the studies performed have observational study set and few interventional studies are available, producing conflicting results. Overall, it can be stated that the potential role of Vitamin D in neurological diseases is mostly unclear and further randomised controlled trials are needed to understand better whether Vitamin D supplementation treatment can be useful in brain disorders. PMID: 31142227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
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