18F-FAC PET Visualizes Brain-Infiltrating Leukocytes in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Conclusion: 18F-FAC PET can visualize brain-infiltrating leukocytes in a mouse MS model and can monitor the response of these cells to an immunomodulatory drug. Translating this strategy into humans will require exploring additional radiotracers.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Source Type: research

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AbstractThe choroid plexus (CP) forming the blood –cerebrospinal fluid (B-CSF) barrier is among the least studied structures of the central nervous system (CNS) despite its clinical importance. The CP is an epithelio-endothelial convolute comprising a highly vascularized stroma with fenestrated capillaries and a continuous lining of epithelial ce lls joined by apical tight junctions (TJs) that are crucial in forming the B-CSF barrier. Integrity of the CP is critical for maintaining brain homeostasis and B-CSF barrier permeability. Recent experimental and clinical research has uncovered the significance of the CP in t...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Complications involving the central nervous system (CNS) occur in 9–14% of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including stroke-like episodes, demyelination, encephalitis, and nonspecific neurological symptoms. Here we report a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) like relapsing remitting encephalomyelitis following allogeneic HSCT, which did not respond to disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and “domino” autologous HSCT. A 53-year-old male was treated with allogeneic HSCT for lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Ten months later he presented with ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract During demyelinating disease such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, myelin is destroyed and along with it, the oligodendrocytes that synthesize the myelin. Thus, recovery is limited due to both interruptions in neuronal transmission as well as lack of support for neurons. Although oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain abundant in the central nervous system, they rarely mature and form new functional myelin in the diseased CNS. In cell culture and in experimental models of demyelinating disease, inhibitory signaling factors decrease myelination and remyelination. One of the most potent of these are the b...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, T2D impairs vascular function by dysregulated autophagy. Therefore, autophagy could be a potential target for overcoming diabetic microvascular complications. To What Degree Does Loss of Skeletal Muscle with Age Contribute to Immunosenescence? https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/11/to-what-degree-does-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-with-age-contribute-to-immunosenescence/ Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, is characteristic of aging. A perhaps surprisingly large fraction of the losses can be averted by strength training, but there are nonetheless inexorable process...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Researchers here note a signature of blood-brain barrier dysfunction that is common in many forms of damage and injury to the brain, suggesting it to be more broadly relevant to pathology than suspected. There is already good evidence for dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier to be an early feature of neurodegenerative diseases. The specialized cells of the blood-brain barrier line blood vessels that pass through the central nervous system, managing the passage of molecules and cells. When the barrier fails, unwanted molecules such as fibrogen can enter the brain to cause inflammation - and chronic inflammation in the bra...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 383-390 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687842Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are classically associated with immunosuppression arising from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and with various hematologic malignancies. However, over the past few years, they are increasingly associated with transplantation and various immunosuppressive treatments used to treat autoimmune diseases. They cause significant morbidity and mortality and remain a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical signs and symptoms of infection and mimicry by various noninfectious causes. The pathogens a...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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