Immune Profile of the Nasal Mucosa in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Fungal and Parasitic Infections

Localized skin lesions are characteristic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL); however, Leishmania (Viannia) species, which are responsible for most CL cases in the Americas, can spread systemically, sometimes resulting in mucosal disease. Detection of Leishmania has been documented in healthy mucosal tissues (conjunctiva, tonsils, and nasal mucosa) and healthy skin of CL patients and in individuals with asymptomatic infection in areas of endemicity of L. (V.) panamensis and L. (V.) braziliensis transmission. However, the conditions and mechanisms that favor parasite persistence in healthy mucosal tissues are unknown. In this descriptive study, we compared the cell populations of the nasal mucosa (NM) of healthy donors and patients with active CL and explored the immune gene expression signatures related to molecular detection of Leishmania in this tissue in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms of mucosal disease. The cellular composition and gene expression profiles of NM samples from active CL patients were similar to those of healthy volunteers, with a predominance of epithelial over immune cells, and within the CD45+ cell population, a higher frequency of CD66b+ followed by CD14+ and CD3+ cells. In CL patients with molecular evidence of Leishmania persistence in the NM, genes characteristic of an anti-inflammatory and tissue repair responses (IL4R, IL5RA, POSTN, and SATB1) were overexpressed relative to NM samples from CL patients in which Leishmania was not detected. He...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
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In this study, we investigated the impact of microglial replacement in the aged brain on neural injury using a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced by collagenase injection. We found that replacement of microglia in the aged brain reduced neurological deficits and brain edema after ICH. Microglial replacement-induced attenuation of ICH injury was accompanied with alleviated blood-brain barrier disruption and leukocyte infiltration. Notably, newly repopulated microglia had reduced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and CD86, and upregulation of CD206 in response to ICH. Our findings suggest that ...
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Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcomes and the affect of timing of surgical repair of fovea-splitting rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Method: A retrospective, consecutive cohort from multiple surgeons at a single center. Fovea status (fovea-on, fovea-splitting, or fovea-off) was classified by preoperative optical coherence tomography. The primary outcome measure was the visual acuity at the last follow-up that was further correlated with the timing of surgical repair. Results: One hundred and ninety-five eyes were included with 62 fovea-on, 65 fovea-splitting, and 68 fovea-off detachments. The mean ...
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