Mechanisms of Schwann cell plasticity involved in peripheral nerve repair after injury.

Mechanisms of Schwann cell plasticity involved in peripheral nerve repair after injury. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Apr 10;: Authors: Nocera G, Jacob C Abstract The great plasticity of Schwann cells (SCs), the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), is a critical feature in the context of peripheral nerve regeneration following traumatic injuries and peripheral neuropathies. After a nerve damage, SCs are rapidly activated by injury-induced signals and respond by entering the repair program. During the repair program, SCs undergo dynamic cell reprogramming and morphogenic changes aimed at promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery. SCs convert into a repair phenotype, activate negative regulators of myelination and demyelinate the damaged nerve. Moreover, they express many genes typical of their immature state as well as numerous de-novo genes. These genes modulate and drive the regeneration process by promoting neuronal survival, damaged axon disintegration, myelin clearance, axonal regrowth and guidance to their former target, and by finally remyelinating the regenerated axon. Many signaling pathways, transcriptional regulators and epigenetic mechanisms regulate these events. In this review, we discuss the main steps of the repair program with a particular focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate SC plasticity following peripheral nerve injury. PMID: 32277262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
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Effects of NP-1 on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of Schwann cell line RSC96 through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Am J Transl Res. 2020;12(8):4127-4140 Authors: Kou Y, Yu F, Yuan Y, Niu S, Han N, Zhang Y, Yin X, Xu H, Jiang B Abstract Peripheral nerve injury is a common refractory disease in the clinic that often leads to dysfunction of movement and sensation. Different from other tissue injuries, peripheral nerve injury needs a longer time for regeneration. Therefore, effective drug therapy is needed to promote nerve regeneration in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Our prelimin...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 August 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Pallavi Asthana, Gang Zhang, Kazim A. Sheikh, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome is an autoimmune peripheral neuropathy and a common cause of neuromuscular paralysis. Preceding infection induces the production of anti-ganglioside (GD) antibodies attacking its own peripheral nerves. Damaged axons fail to regrow and to re-innervate target muscles. In severe peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) such as proximal PNIs that requires long-distance axon regeneration, motor functional recovery is virtually non-exist. In mice, regenerating axons must reach target muscle within 35 days (critical period) to reform functional neuromuscular junctions and regain motor funct...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
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Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
Platinum-based chemotherapy–induced peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common causes of dose reduction and discontinuation of life-saving chemotherapy in cancer treatment; it often causes permanent impairment of quality of life in cancer patients. The mechanisms that underlie this neuropathy are not defined, and effective treatment and prevention measures are not available. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT2 protected mice against cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). SIRT2 accumulated in the nuclei of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and prevented neuronal cell death following cisplatin treatment. M...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study delves into the mechanisms by which a short period of fasting can accelerate wound healing. Fasting triggers many of the same cellular stress responses, such as upregulated autophagy, as occur during the practice of calorie restriction. It isn't exactly the same, however, so it is always worth asking whether any specific biochemistry observed in either case does in fact occur in both situations. In particular, the period of refeeding following fasting appears to have beneficial effects that are distinct from those that occur while food is restricted. Multiple forms of therapeutic fasting have been repor...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Progeroid mice with DNA repair deficiencies exhibit an accelerated formation of senescent cells and manifestation of age-related conditions. This class of animal model has been used in research relating to cellular senescence in order to cost-effectively demonstrate that targeted removal of senescent cells is beneficial. However, one still needs to be careful when drawing conclusions based on their peculiar biochemistry. Progeria of this nature is quite unlike normal aging at the detail level. Cells become senescent in response to reaching the Hayflick limit, tissue injury, molecular damage, or a toxic environment. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. Peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a regulator of mitochondrial function in multiple cell types. In sensory neurons, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) augments PGC-1α activity and this pathway is depressed in diabetes leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Antimuscarinic drugs targeting the muscarinic acetylcholine type 1 receptor (M1R) prevent/reverse neurodegeneration by inducing nerve regeneration in rodent models of d...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Bone is richly innervated by nerve growth factor–responsive (NGF-responsive) tropomyosin receptor kinase A–expressing (TrKa-expressing) sensory nerve fibers, which are required for osteochondral progenitor expansion during mammalian skeletal development. Aside from pain sensation, little is known regarding the role of sensory innervation in bone repair. Here, we characterized the reinnervation of tissue following experimental ulnar stress fracture and assessed the impact of loss of TrkA signaling in this process. Sequential histological data obtained in reporter mice subjected to fracture demonstrated a marked ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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