High-throughput synthetic rescue for exhaustive characterization of suppressor mutations in human genes.
High-throughput synthetic rescue for exhaustive characterization of suppressor mutations in human genes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Apr 08;: Authors: Kobaisi F, Fayyad N, Sulpice E, Badran B, Fayyad-Kazan H, Rachidi W, Gidrol X Abstract Inherited or acquired mutations can lead to pathological outcomes. However, in a process defined as synthetic rescue, phenotypic outcome created by primary mutation is alleviated by suppressor mutations. An exhaustive characterization of these mutations in humans is extremely valuable to better comprehend why patients carrying the same detrimental mutation exhibit different pathological outcomes or different responses to treatment. Here, we first review all known suppressor mutations' mechanisms characterized by genetic screens on model species like yeast or flies. However, human suppressor mutations are scarce, despite some being discovered based on orthologue genes. Because of recent advances in high-throughput screening, developing an inventory of human suppressor mutations for pathological processes seems achievable. In addition, we review several screening methods for suppressor mutations in cultured human cells through knock-out, knock-down or random mutagenesis screens on large scale. We provide examples of studies published over the past years that opened new therapeutic avenues, particularly in oncology. PMID: 32270227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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