Fungal Diversity and Mycotoxins in Low Moisture Content Ready-To-Eat Foods in Nigeria

Low moisture content ready-to-eat foods vended in Nigerian markets could be pre-packaged or packaged at point of sale. These foods are widely and frequently consumed across Nigeria as quick foods. Despite their importance in the daily diets of Nigerians, a comprehensive study on the diversity of fungi, fungal metabolite production potential, and mycotoxin contamination in the foods has not yet been reported. Therefore, this study assessed the diversity of fungi in 70 samples of low moisture content ready-to-eat foods [cheese balls, garri (cassava-based), granola (a mix of cereals and nuts) and popcorn] in Nigeria by applying a polyphasic approach including morphological examination, genera/species-specific gene marker sequencing and secondary metabolite profiling of fungal cultures. Additionally, mycotoxin levels in the foods were determined by LC–MS/MS. Fungal strains (n = 148) were recovered only from garri. Molecular analysis of 107 representative isolates revealed 27 species belonging to 12 genera: Acremonium, Allophoma, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Microdochium, Penicillium, Sarocladium, Talaromyces, and Tolypocladium in the Ascomycota, and Fomitopsis and Trametes in the Basidiomycota. To the best of our knowledge Allophoma, Fomitopsis, Microdochium, Tolypocladium, and Trametes are reported in African food for the first time. A total of 21 uncommon metabolites were found in cultures of the following species: andrastin A and sporogen AO1 in Aspergillus flavu...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 30 May 2020Source: Fungal BiologyAuthor(s): Esther GARCIA-CELA, Carol VERHEECKE-VAESSEN, Maria GUTIERREZ-POZO, Elisavet KIAITSI, Alessandra MARCON-GASPERINI, Naresh MAGAN, Angel MEDINA
Source: Fungal Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2020Source: Journal of Bioscience and BioengineeringAuthor(s): Takehiko Todokoro, Hiroki Bando, Atsushi Kotaka, Hiroko Tsutsumi, Yoji Hata, Hiroki Ishida
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Abstract Symbiotic partnerships are widespread in nature and in industrial applications yet there are limited examples of laboratory communities. Therefore, using common photobionts and mycobionts similar to those in natural lichens, we create an artificial lichen-like symbiosis. While Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger could not obtain nutrients from the green algae, Chlorella, and Scenedesmus, the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. PCC 6720 was able to support fungal growth and also elevated the accumulation of total biomass. The Nostoc-Aspergillus co-cultures grew on light and CO2 in an inorganic BG11 liquid medi...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Filamentous fungi are important organisms in traditionally prepared amylase and alcohol-producing dry starters in India. We collected 40 diverse types of amylase and alcohol-producing starters from eight states in North East India viz. marcha, thiat, humao, hamei, chowan, phut, dawdim, and khekhrii. The average fungal population was 4.9 × 105 cfu/g with an average of pH 5.3 and 10.7%, respectively. In the present study, 131 fungal isolates were isolated and characterized based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and were grouped into 44 representative fungal strains. Based on results of morphological chara...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
With limited therapeutic options and associated severe adverse effects, fungal infections are a serious threat to human health. Innate immune response mediated by pattern recognition proteins is integral to host defense against fungi. A soluble pattern recognition protein, Surfactant protein D (SP-D), plays an important role in immune surveillance to detect and eliminate human pathogens. SP-D exerts its immunomodulatory activity via direct interaction with several receptors on the epithelial cells lining the mucosal tracts, as well as on innate and adaptive immune cells. Being a C-type lectin, SP-D shows calcium- and sugar...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study suggested that wild R. pseudostellariae was able to resist or tolerate disease by increasing soil microbial diversity, and reducing the accumulation of soil-borne pathogens.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions. The emergence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficiency dramatically impacts both curative and prophylactic antifungal strategies. Physicians following patients with primary immune-deficiencies should be aware of this emerging problem as it complicates management of the patient. PMID: 32459615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract The human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Adaptation to the host environment is integral to survival of A. fumigatus and requires the coordination of short- and long-distance vesicular transport to move essential components throughout the fungus. We previously reported the importance of MyoE, the only class V myosin, for hyphal growth and virulence of A. fumigatus. Class V myosins are actin-based, cargo-carrying motor proteins that contain unique binding sites for specific cargo. Specific cargo carried by myos...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2020Source: Process BiochemistryAuthor(s): Noel Dungog Roble, James Ogbonna, Hideo Tanaka
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the recently released IMMY sona Aspergillus LFA when testing serum samples. The study took the form of a retrospective, anonymous case/control study comprising 179 serum samples from 136 patients with invasive fungal disease, previously documented using recently revised internationally accepted definitions. The LFA was performed following the manufacturer’s instructions using a cube reader to generate a galactomannan index (GMI). Performance parameters were determined, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to identify an optimal th...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Mycology Source Type: research
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