Clinical trials on drug repositioning for COVID-19 treatment.

Clinical trials on drug repositioning for COVID-19 treatment. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2020;44:e40 Authors: Rosa SGV, Santos WC Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) was informed on December 2019 about a coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei province (China). Subsequently, on March 12, 2020, 125,048 cases and 4,614 deaths were reported. Coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus, from the genus Betacoronavirus, that is distributed in birds, humans, and other mammals. WHO has named the novel coronavirus disease as COVID-19. More than 80 clinical trials have been launched to test coronavirus treatment, including some drug repurposing or repositioning for COVID-19. Hence, we performed a search in March 2020 of the clinicaltrials.gov database. The eligibility criteria for the retrieved studies were: contain a clinicaltrials.gov base identifier number; describe the number of participants and the period for the study; describe the participants' clinical conditions; and utilize interventions with medicines already studied or approved for any other disease in patients infected with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV). It is essential to emphasize that this article only captured trials listed in the clinicaltrials.gov database. We identified 24 clinical trials, involving more than 20 medicines, such as human immunoglobulin, interferons, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, methylp...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

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ConclusionsDespite a rapid worldwide spread, attack rates have been low in most regions, demonstrating the efficacy of control measures.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Recently in China, a novel coronavirus outbreak took place which caused pneumonia-like symptoms. This coronavirus belongs to the family of SARS and MERS and causes respiratory system disease known as COVID-19. At present we use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular biology methods for the detection of coronavirus. Other than these PCR based methods, some improved methods also exist such as microarray-based techniques, Real time-quantitative PCR, CRISPR-Cas13 based tools but almost all of the available methods have advantages and disadvantages. There are many limitations associated with this meth...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
In December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown pathogen was identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China1. The pathogen was quickly revealed as a novel betacoronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), and the pneumonia was named as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO)2. WHO declared the outbreak of the disease as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 20202. COVID-19 is highly contagious and has rapidly spread to the world, affecting more than 180 countries and over 15,000,000 people3.
Source: Heart and Lung - Category: Intensive Care Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) globally threatens the public health. COVID-19 is a pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Typical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough and fatigue. As a novel disease, there are still many unsolved questions regarding COVID-19. Nevertheless, genetic analysis has demonstrated that the virus is strongly associated with certain SARS-like coronavirus originated from bats. The COVID-19 outbreak started in a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China, b...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused fatal outbreaks of pneumonia. The similarity of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and RaTG13 is about 76% and 97% respectively.  Also its potential receptor-binding domain (RBD) shows similarity with approximately 74% and 90.1% for SARS-CoV and RaTG13. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein. Sialic acids are primarily expressed by vertebrates and some microbial pathogens improving the ability to avoid from immune system of vertebrate host. Interactions o...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
AbstractThe novel coronavirus outbreak induces many concerns about the management of pregnancy, as well as rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. The very rapid spread of the infection throughout all inhabited continents leads to a fast-growing number of infected with SARS-CoV-2 and requires answers and special recommendations to the most vulnerable group of people: pregnant woman and patients on immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment. A systematic literature search was performed in Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus database for studies describing COVID-19 infection in pregnant women diagnosed with rheumatic and muscul...
Source: Rheumatology International - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Global human health is increasingly challenged by emerging viral threats, especially those observed over the last 20 years with coronavirus-related human diseases, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Recently, in late December 2019, a novel Betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, originating from the Chinese city of Wuhan, emerged and was then identified as the causative agent of a new severe form of pneumonia, COVID-19. Real-time genome sequencing in such viral outbreaks is a key issue to confirm identification and characterization of the involved pathogen and to help...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This article focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child health in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the epidemiology of major pediatric diseases and, referencing modeling projections, discuss the short- and long-term impact of the pandemic on major disease control. We deliberate on potential complications of SARS-CoV-2 co-infections/co-morbidities and identify critical social and ethical issues. Furthermore, we highlight the paucity of COVID-19 data and clinical trials in this region and the lack of child participants in ongoing studies. Lastly, approaches and interventions to mitigate the pandemic's impact on chi...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn December 2019, outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected pneumonia patients were discovered in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. With the spread of the epidemic, new cases have been found in other regions of China and abroad. This review summarizes the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission pathways, high-risk factors, diagnostic points, pathogenesis, and therapeutic drugs to provide the prevention and treatment theories for COVID-19.Recent FindingsCOVID-19 is highly contagious and is transmitted mainly through the respiratory tract. Mo...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In January 2020, a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the causative agent of an outbreak of viral pneumonia that broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, China (WHO, 2020a). The contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). In response, multiple countries have adopted various containment and mitigatory measures aimed at curbing the spread of the virus. Containment measures have included widespread testing, prompt contact tracing and quarantine.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
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