Development of probiotic formulations for oral candidiasis prevention: Gellan gum as a carrier to deliver Lactobacillus paracasei 28.4.

In this study, we impregnated gellan gum, a natural biopolymer used as a food-additive, with a probiotic and investigated its antifungal activity against Candida albicans Lactobacillus paracasei 28.4, a strain recently isolated from the oral cavity of a caries-free individual, was incorporated in several concentrations of gellan gum (0.6% to 1%). All tested concentrations could incorporate L. paracasei cells while maintaining bacterial viability. Probiotic/gellan formulations were stable for 7 days when stored at room temperature or 4°C. Long-term storage of bacteria-impregnated gellan gum was achieved when L. paracasei 28.4 was lyophilized. The probiotic/gellan formulations provided a release of L. paracasei cells over 24 hours that was sufficient to inhibit the growth of C. albicans with effects dependent on the cell concentrations incorporated into gellan gum. The probiotic/gellan formulations also had inhibitory activity against Candida spp. biofilms by reducing the number of Candida spp. cells (p
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

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In this study, we examine the in vivo Candida killing capacity of CCL28 in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), as well as the spectrum and mechanism of anti-Candida activity. In the mouse model of OPC, application of wild type CCL28 reduces oral fungal burden in severely immunodeficient mice without causing excessive inflammation or altering tissue neutrophil recruitment. CCL28 is effective against multiple clinical strains of C. albicans. Polyamine protein transporters are not required for CCL28 anti-Candida activity. Both structured and unstructured CCL28 proteins show rapid and sustained fungicidal activity that is superio...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Anidulafungin and micafungin were quantified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of critically ill adults and in cerebral cortex of deceased patients. In CSF, anidulafungin levels (
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
In this study, we found that Nerol (NEL) had strong antimicrobial activity and 0.77 μL/mL NEL was the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) effective against C. albicans. We determined the change of the growth curve of NEL for C. albicans, to identify the trend of NEL activity against C. albicans. Through the determination of the ergosterol content and glucose-induced extracellular fluid acidification of NEL on C. albicans, we found that NEL inhibits the growth of C. albicans by destroying cell membranes. This finding was also supported by the expression of SAP (secreted aspartyl proteinase) involved in cell membr...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Conclusion. A PK/PD breakpoint of C. albicans voriconazole at the ECOFF/ECV of 0.03 mg/L was determined for both EUCAST/CLSI methods, indicating the need for breakpoint harmonization for the reference methodologies. PMID: 32229492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
We describe caspofungin pharmacokinetics (PK) after the first and fourth doses in 20 critically ill septic patients. Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the probability of target attainment (PTA) (AUC/MIC> 865) for Candida spp. Caspofungin concentrations were analyzed by HPLC in plasma and urine. A great variability in PK parameters was observed after both doses. Patients were divided in two groups according to their AUC values (AUC ≤ 75 mg h/L cut-off). In the low-AUC group Cmax, Cmin and AUC were lower, while Vd and Cl were higher than in the high-AUC group (p 
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research
This article explores new perspectives on the mechanisms of antifungal acridine-peptide conjugates and acridine-based hybrid molecules to effectively combat fungal infections.
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Antimicrobial peptides and proteins play critical roles in the host defense against invading pathogens. We recently discovered that recombinantly expressed human and mouse serum amyloid A1 (rhSAA1 and rmSAA1) proteins have potent antifungal activities against the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans At high concentrations, rhSAA1 disrupts C. albicans membrane integrity and induces rapid fungal cell death. In the current study, we find that rhSAA1 promotes cell aggregation and targets the C. albicans cell wall adhesin Als3. Inactivation of ALS3 in C. albicans leads to a striking decrease in cell ag...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Manogepix is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that inhibits glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis. Using whole genome sequencing, we characterized two efflux-mediated mechanisms in the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis that result in decreased manogepix susceptibility. In C. albicans, a gain-of-function mutation in the transcription factor gene ZCF29 activated expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes CDR11 and SNQ2. In C. parapsilosis, a mitochondrial deletion activated expression of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene MDR1. PMID: ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional milk protein with antimicrobial activity against a range of pathogens. While numerous studies report that LF is active against fungi, there are considerable differences in the level of antifungal activity and the capacity of LF to interact with other drugs. Here we undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the antifungal spectrum of activity of three defined sources of LF across 22 yeast and 24 mould species, and assess interactions with six widely used antifungal drugs. LF was broadly and consistently active across all yeast species (MIC 8-64 μg/ml), with the extent...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Abstract We evaluated the activity of rezafungin and comparators using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methods against worldwide collection of 2,205 invasive fungal isolates recovered from 2016-2018. Candida spp. (1,904 isolates; 6 species), Cryptococcus neoformans (73), Aspergillus fumigatus (183) and Aspergillus flavus (45) isolates were susceptibility (S) tested for rezafungin as well as the comparators caspofungin, anidulafungin, micafungin, and azoles. Interpretive criteria were applied following CLSI published clinical breakpoints (CBP) and epidemiological cutoff values...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
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