The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Brain Volume in Children and Adolescents With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

The positive relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive performance is mediated, in part, by differences in brain structure in typically developing youth. Associations between brain regions that relate to SES overlap with brain regions known to be sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Animal models demonstrate that PAE attenuates neural and cognitive benefits of early life enrichment. However, whether or not environmental factors related to SES are associated with brain development in youth affected by PAE remains unknown in humans.MethodsT1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained in participants with PAE and compared to age- and sex- matched Controls (n = 197, 48% with PAE, 44% girls, 6.5–17.7 years old). General linear modeling was utilized to examine associations between SES and subcortical brain volumes for youth with PAE compared to Controls.ResultsGroup by SES interactions were observed within the hippocampus (HPC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral diencephalon (vDC) (corrected p values
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Conclusions: In this study, we observed in middle- and old-aged individuals with neither dementia nor alcohol-related disorders that moderate lifetime alcohol intake was associated with lower cerebral AB deposition compared to a lifetime history of not drinking. Moderate lifetime alcohol intake may have a beneficial influence on AD by reducing pathological amyloid deposition rather than amyloid-independent neurodegeneration or cerebrovascular injury. The Study in Context: Report: 35% of worldwide dementia cases could be prevented by modifying these 9 modifiable risk factors Study: Drinking up to 5–8 glasses of wine...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Alzheimer-disease Alzheimers beer beta amyloid deposits brain protein dementia hard liquor mental acuity moderate drinking MRI neurodegeneration PET wine Source Type: blogs
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Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
by Jee Wook Kim, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Kang Ko, So Yeon Jeon, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyeong Kim, Seong A Shin, Chul-Ho Sohn, Dong Young Lee, for the KBASE Research Group BackgroundAn emerging body of literature has indicated that moderate alcohol intake may be protective against Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. However, little information is available regarding whether moderate alcohol intake is related to reductions in amyloid-beta (A β) deposition, or is protective via amyloid-independent mechanisms in the living human brain. Here we examined the associations of moderate alcohol intake with ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringAuthor(s): Ashima Khosla, Padmavati Khandnor, Trilok ChandAbstractElectroencephalogram (EEG) measures the neuronal activities in the form of electric currents that are generated due to the synchronized activity by a group of specialized pyramidal cells inside the brain. The study presents a brief comparison of various functional neuroimaging techniques, revealing the excellent neuroimaging capabilities of EEG signals such as high temporal resolution, inexpensiveness, portability and non-invasiveness as compared to the other ...
Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Findings allow for a better understanding of brain networks affected by HIV and alcohol and may provide avenues for interventions. PMID: 32065091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current HIV Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research
AbstractAims/IntroductionTo investigate the association of alternative glycemic measures —namely, serum glycated albumin (GA), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and the GA/HbA1c ratio —with global brain and hippocampal atrophy in a general elderly Japanese population.Materials and Methods1,278 Japanese subjects aged ≥65 years in a community participated in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning and screening examination of health status in 2012. We measured total brain volume (TBV), hippocampal volume (HV), and intracranial volume (ICV) using the data from the MRI examination. The association of each glycemic...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
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Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results of this study extend previous findings that alcohol use disorder is associated with differences in activation during an immediate or delayed choice by delineating activation associated with the parameters of impulsive choice.
Source: Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this report, we describe a rare case of ALL with HCC, located in the left subphrenic area, especially which was supplied by the branch of left hepatic artery has rarely been described. The clinical presentation, radiological features are described in the literature.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: While many adolescents exhibit risky behavior, teenagers with a family history (FH+) of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at a heightened risk for earlier initiation of alcohol use, a more rapid escalation in frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and developing a subsequent AUD in comparison to youth without such family history (FH-). Neuroanatomically, developmentally normative risk-taking behavior parallels an imbalance between more protracted development of the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and earlier development of limbic regions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived volumetric pro...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
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